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n AND THE ° 






3 .2^0^ ^H 

^^^ PRINCETON, N. J. '^ 

Purchased by the Hamill Missionary Fund. 


BV 3151 .042x 

Oldham, William Fitzjames, 

India, Malaysia, and the 


Malaysia : Nature's Wonderland 

16mo, net, 35 cents 


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belibcreb defore »pracu«e Wnlbertfitp, 1013 \>^/ 







Copyright. 1914, by 



Preface vii 

I. Pros and Cons op Missions 1 

II. The Missionary 41 

III. The Message 87 

IV. India 125 

V. Mass Movements in India 167 

VI. Malaysia 207 

VII. The Philippines 249 


All these lectures on the Nathan Graves 
Foundation of Syracuse University, excepting 
the one on "The Mass Movements in India," 
were prepared for the undergraduate hearers 
in Syracuse, New York, before whom they were 

A life-long experience with foreign missions 
and missionaries, broken by periods of work 
and observation in America, has given the 
lecturer a first-hand acquaintance with the 
facts he handles. His deductions from these 
facts are likely to be as faulty as are those of 
any other fallible man. He would simply say 
that he has sought to speak the truth as he sees 
it, and so to present the life and work of the 
missionary and of those to whom he goes as to 
bring to the young people who heard him, and 
to others who may read this book, a vivid pic- 
ture of the conditions that surround this 
greatest enterprise of the Christian church. 

If among those who heard or who will read 
these lectures any may be helped to link him- 
self to this appealing and fruitful work, 
whether as missionary abroad or as an intelli- 



gent and devoted helper at home, the object of 

the lecturer will be achieved, and he will be 

forever grateful for the opportunity thus given 

him to serve. 

W. F. Oldham. 





When Sydney Smith made his sneering re- 
mark regarding William Carey, referring to 
him as a consecrated cobbler who had been 
touched with a strange mania for foreign mis- 
sions, England did not know that Smithes 
chief claim upon the attention of succeeding 
generations was secured by linking his name, 
in however dubious a manner, with that of 
the great missionary. 

From the days of William Carey the whole 
idea of foreign missions has gradually assumed 
a large place in Christian thinking, until now 
it may safely be said that in the religious 
world it occupies the forefront of thought and 
action, and has even gathered to itself the 
close attention of publicists and statesmen 
who are not moved, primarily, by religious 

With the coming of foreign missions into 
this prominent place of consideration it is to 
be expected that the motives that generate 
them and the methods of their carrying on 
would both be closely examined. Sometimes 
it is the friends of religion that raise ques- 



tions, sometimes the foes; but, in the main, 
it may be said that the unspoken questions of 
the religiously indifferent are the more para- 
lyzing to missionary activity, for the very 
reason that they are unspoken and, therefore, 
cannot be frankly met. I purpose to examine 
many of these objections and queries, and 
trust that in doing so I will not minify the 
seriousness nor sincerity of many who ask 
them, nor evade the full force of the objection, 
even when propounded from hostile ranks. 

No final answer can ever be made to all the 
questions asked or objections raised concern- 
ing any central position in religion, for the 
fact is that religion is an interpretation of 
life, and the questions that gather about any 
phases of it must change with the clianging 
day. No complete apology will ever be writ- 
ten, for, while it is writing, the point of view 
is slowly changing, and by the time the answer 
is completed the question is ready to be re- 
stated from a slightly different angle. It may, 
therefore, be questioned whether there is ever 
any value in a polemic that affects changing 
(luestions; as well try to paint a landscape 
from a moving train. But the human mind 
will never rest content without this current 
investigation, and, though questions may 
change from changing apprehensions of life 


itself, the process is slow and the adequate 
answer for to-day will inspire some begin- 
nings of confidence for to-morrow, whatever 
added reply to-morrow's apologist may be 
forced to make. The declaration, therefore, 
that when the last word of to-day is spoken 
the whole matter of foreign missions will not 
be beyond the region of criticisms and ques- 
tions, is not to deny either the value of serious 
attempt to meet the difficulties of to-day, nor 
to detract from the residuum of value it will 
hold for the future. 

There is another phase also that is not with- 
out value. The function of criticism is not 
always to oppose, but often to clarify and 
modify, and bring to greater excellence. The 
critic of missions is, in some regards, their 
best friend and much of the amiable senti- 
mentality that has gathered about this subject 
has been rudely dispelled by the keen ques- 
tioning of the critic. The questions and 
criticisms may be divided into three kinds: 
(1) those that boldly inquire whether any 
religion needs to thrust itself upon the atten- 
tion of peoples who were not trained in its 
beliefs; (2) those that admit the comparative 
value of Christianity, but question whether, 
under present conditions when it has so 
meagerly worked out its program in Christen- 


dom, it is advisable to undertake the quixotic 
program of seeking to establish the Christian 
faith in other lands and among other peoples; 
and (3) minor criticisms of ancient methods. 
There are those who deem it an impertinence 
for the Christians to invade the territories of 
other faiths without invitation and at first, 
at least, with scant welcome. Christianity, 
it is said, may be an admirable religion for 
those who profess it; but it shares its values 
with all the other great systems of religious 
thought, and when it seeks to displace them 
it is a source of irritation and causes a re- 
ligious confusion and a hatefulness of temper 
which are worse than the product of any re- 
ligion unvexed by sectarian strife. Each peo- 
ple, it is said, has evolved a system in keep- 
ing with its own racial instincts and tenden- 
cies, and expressing the outcomes of its racial 
history and surroundings. These systems of 
religion have been the habitations of the hopes 
and aspirations, the joys and fears and all 
the great emotions of the particular peoples 
who have evolved them. They have served 
these peoples for the centuries and, in some 
cases, for the millenniums. They have steadied 
conduct and given consistency to life. Gen- 
eration has followed generation lighted by 
such radiance as these religions contain. 


They are ingrained in the very genius of the 
race to which they minister and are at once 
the product of its inner life and the guide of 
its outer conduct. How hateful a program is 
that of the missionary of another faith who 
seeks by vexatious controversy, or by what- 
ever means, to disturb the peace, confuse the 
mind, and deprive of its consolation and in- 
spirations the religious faith that has come 
to be the very life of these peoples ! I trust I 
have put the matter as strongly as the most 
earnest objector. 

The objection assumes several things: If 
religion be a right interpretation of our re- 
lations to God, ourselves, and the universe, 
that there can be many such interpretations, 
and all of them hold equal values for different 
peoples, would be to assume that there can 
be more than one right relation of the spirit 
of man to the Spirit of God, to oneself, and 
to one^s fellows. If this be considered in the 
realm of our actual knowledge of earthly 
affairs, the assumption immediately breaks 
down. Take the Confucian statement of the 
five several relations of life: the relation of 
father to son, of husband to wife, of brother to 
brother, of man to man, of ruler to people. A 
right statement of these relations would surely 
hold quite as truly for a Hottentot in Africa, 


a wild Battak in Sumatra, a cultivated Eu- 
ropean, or, a Confucian Chinaman. One is 
not prepared to admit that, in these human 
relationships, interpretations may be per- 
mitted as serviceable and true in one land 
which differ radically from other interpreta- 
tions in some other land. If a man should do 
justly, and even more than that, mercifully, 
toward his fellow man in New York, there 
can be no real rule of right between man and 
man in Central Africa which does not call for 
similar action. There may be very much ex- 
cuse for failure to comprehend, and, there- 
fore, failure to carry out such ideas under 
the darkness and ignorant superstitions of 
Africa, but any level below that which is 
demanded from the most civilized and ex- 
alted of men is a level below which no people 
can be permitted permanently to remain with 
comfort to the minds of their well-wishers, 
or, indeed, with peace and profit to themselves 
and to the remainder of the human family. 

If it be the right of a woman to be con- 
sidered a person and, therefore, not to be 
subordinated to her husband, but to be con- 
sidered his fellow and partner in life, under- 
taking, it may be, different duties, but no- 
where yielding equality of right and dignity of 
life, it can never be conceded that the Moslem 


concoption of woman as a mere annex to man 
to suit his pleasure, add to his comfort, and 
continue the race shall be accepted as a per- 
fectly valid interpretation of woman's posi- 
tion, because through the centuries it has been 
evolved in the Moslem life. Indeed, it will 
often be found that those w^ho most strenu- 
ously claim the right of undisturbed possession 
of religious beliefs variant from Christianity 
for the people of the other faiths are, at the 
same time, the most strenuous to insist upon 
a high program of reform in many of the hu- 
man relations both in our land and for all 
other peoples. The fact is, what is really be- 
hind in the thinking of most of these objectors 
is an unspoken agnosticism regarding the be- 
ing and character of God and the human rela- 
tions that flow from this. 

If there be granted the major premises of 
the Christian faith, a personal God of holiness 
and love, who ceaselessly seeks the good of his 
creatures, endeavoring to wean them from the 
wrong and to build them up by the processes 
of his providence and grace into all goodness 
and strength of character; and if, with this, 
there be granted, on the human side, the soli- 
darity of the human family, the fact that amid 
all diversities the human faculties and capaci- 
ties are essentially alike, it will not be difficult 


to at once see that the claims of God upon the 
human spirit and the relation between God 
and the human spirit must be, in the last 
analysis, the same in all lands and among all 
peoples. The same reasons why the human 
conduct toward each other and the motives 
which inspire it must, in the end, be the same 
in all lands, forces us to the conclusion that 
conduct toward God and the motives that in- 
spire it will approach unity of manifestation 
and oneness of underlying reasons therefor as 
it approaches perfection. It is easy to see the 
folly of supposing that racial differences and 
differences of history can make different 
groundwork of truth for various peoples if we 
will examine this matter in other realms than 
that of religion. Thirty years ago China had 
a system of medicine which was at utter vari- 
ance with Western medicine. Their ideas of 
anatomy, the position and functions of the 
various organs of the body, were wholly unlike 
our own. They had built up this knowledge 
through centuries. They were as sincere in 
their beliefs as any of our scientists, and they 
founded their whole theory of medical treat- 
ment on this variant idea of bodily organs and 
their functions. Dr. Wenyon, then of Fatshan, 
on the Pearl River in the province of Kwang- 
Tung, China, told me of a deep disappoint- 


luent he had suffered a few months before my 
visit. The gospel was much opposed in that 
city, and Western medicine was far from hav- 
ing an easy way. To the delight of the doctor, 
he received a message one day from the most 
prominent man in the city, asking him to call 
and see a member of the family. When the 
doctor arrived he painstakingly examined the 
patient and made the most careful diagnosis. 
He found the man suffering from a low ma- 
larial fever which had reduced him consider- 
ably. The case was critical, but the doctor 
hoped to give help. In the coolest manner the 
father dismissed Dr. Wenyon's diagnosis with 
a wave of the hand and said, contemptuously : 
"You are all wrong. I had a suspicion that 
you Western doctors did not know anything 
about a Chinaman ; now I know it. That man 
is suffering not from a fever but from a feeble 
pulsation of the spleen. '' Dr. Wenyon indig- 
nantly answered that there was no pulse in 
the spleen, and went on to say that Western 
doctors did not guess about these things ; they 
attended clinics and autopsies and spoke from 
positive knowledge gained by actual observa- 
tion. Said the Chinaman, quite loftily: "O, 
that is the difference between you and us. 
You see and don't know. Wo don't see and do 
know," and with that the doctor was dis- 


missed, and his hopes of opening a wider door 
in Fatshan were not realized. 

It will scarcely be maintained that the 
Chinese medical system established through 
the centuries by such processes as our China- 
man aptly described was not to be interfered 
with, and that to thrust our Western ideas as 
to how a human body was to be recovered to 
health, was a kind of impertinence that the 
millennium-old medical system of China should 
have been saved from. And yet as soon as we 
turn away from bodies and consider souls our 
objector fails to see that, in the judging of any 
system, the question is not that of its origin, 
or of its persistence through the centuries, but 
the essential truth, under whatever variant 
forms it may live, must be the same in all 
lands, whether for body, mind, or soul. There 
can no more be two religions totally differing 
in their main conceptions than there can be 
two systems of arithmetic or medicine ; in each 
case there can only be one best, and no human 
heart will be content to let large sections of 
the human family live without that best. And 
it may be that the supposed advocacy of the 
rights of other peoples to think religiously as 
they please is only, in the end, a half-lazy in- 
difference to their welfare, or half-veiled doubt 
that religion has any real values for anybody. 


When, sometimes, it is added that these 
simple peoples live their own unvexed and in- 
nocent lives before the appearance of the mis- 
sionary who comes to upset their ways and in- 
troduce all the vexation that comes from 
religious controversy, I fear the facts are very 
far from the statements made. The idyllic 
picture of the simple heathen, who live their 
childlike and blameless lives, is derived en- 
tirely from the fancy of the untraveled and 
amiable writer. The actual facts of the 
heathen world are very far from this, and no 
one who knows the cruelties and jealousies, 
the lust and the deep wickedness of the sup- 
posedly unsophisticated heathen, can ever con- 
sent to letting these poor, ignorant children of 
the human family continue in their besotted 
and often murderous ways. And, when we 
come to the higher civilizations of non-Chris- 
tian peoples, there still remain such actual 
besetments and hindrances to good, such great 
public and social evils accepted as a part of 
life under religious prescriptions, as make it 
impossible for the Christian heart to consent 
to these things as a steady program for all 
time. Wherever they came from, however long 
they have persisted, however firm their im- 
bedding in the matrix of the racial history, 
they are wrong; they are hurtful; many of 


them are cruel; they must go, and they can 
go only by the recasting of the religious think- 
ing of the people. 

The burning of Hindu widows, the worse 
than immolation of Hindu girl-widows of to- 
day, the cruel burdens laid upon Mohamme- 
dan womanhood, and a hundred other en- 
trenched evils which find their existence in 
non-Christian lands, buttressed by religious 
prescriptions — all these must go, and the re- 
ligions that buttress them must go too, for 
they have betrayed the peoples and they must 
be made to lose their power to hurt. 

When Jesus announced his program it will 
be remembered that it was in these striking 
words: "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 
because he hath anointed me to preach the 
gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal 
the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to 
the captives, and recovering of sight to the 
blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, 
to preach the acceptable year of the Lord.'' 
The captives and the bruised are found in 
every land, and no claim of age-long endur- 
ance of the systems under which these cap- 
tivities and bruisings of spirit have been 
caused, can be urged to prevent their being 
superseded by the program of the blessed Re- 
deemer of men. 


But, it is again asked, is there not enough 
in these various systems to save the people? 
A\ ill not the heathen go to heaven if they do 
the best they know how, and does not this 
preaching of a new faith confuse their minds, 
remove the restraints of their own faith and 
leave them exposed to greater danger of moral 
ill? No man can dogmatize about the fate of 
the heathen. The Judge of all the earth can 
be trusted to do right. The Scriptures de- 
clare of Jesus, ^^That was the true Light, which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world.'' It is not inconceivable that many of 
these of the humblest of the family may be 
found in the kingdom of light. But that, 
really, is not the question. A poor wayfarer, 
making his way in the darkness, stumbling 
over all manner of difficulties, lighted by the 
feeble ray of a flickering light, may, with fine 
persistence and earnest purpose, make his way 
until finally he shall reach the gates through 
which he may pass into the realms of day. But 
it would be an ignoble soul that would argue 
that he should therefore not receive the ut- 
most help from one who walks in the full light 
of the revelations of God's will and along the 
smooth and attractive paths that Christ has 
made for us by the revelations of the Holy 


In a great missionary gathering, when 
Bishop Thoburn, in the fullness of his strength, 
was mightily moving the people, I heard the 
voice of an objector cry out from the rear of 
the house. "But will not the heathen be saved 
anyhow?" To which the Bishop made this 
noble reply : "It is not for me to say what the 
fate of the heathen will be; they are in the 
hands of the great and good God; but this I 
know, for I have lived among them for nearly 
half a century: they are painfully stumbling 
along under dark and threatening skies. I 
have been trying to put a star in that sky, a 
star of exceeding radiance; it is the Star of 
Bethlehem." And when it is suggested that 
the preaching of Christ in these non-Christian 
lands adds to the confusion and, therefore, de- 
tracts from the strength of moral motive that 
already constrains them, this also is not true. 
The fact is that the preaching of the gospel 
quickens every good thing in the existing re- 
ligions. The almost immediate effect is that, 
touched by the purity of Christian doctrines, 
these other religions begin at once to seek the 
best that is in them and to put that forward, 
while the less worthy teachings are put in the 
background and tend to lose their power over 
the people. 

It may be seen that, for purely apologetic 


reasons, reforming cults arise wherever Christ 
is preached. The silent witness to his power, 
long before organized Chrisitianity comes to 
ascendency, is the eagerness of the defenders 
of the non-Christian faiths to show that they 
also hold teachings much like his. This is the 
meaning of the various reform cults that have 
arisen in India. The Brahmo-Samaj, through 
the lips of its chief apostle Babu-Sen, openly 
announces Christ as the chief of its prophets. 
While it also recognizes Mohammed-Buddha 
and several of the Hindu ascetics, it, never- 
theless, approaches Christianity in its teach- 
ings even more markedly than some errant 
sects in Christendom. The modern accent in 
Hinduism put upon the teachings of the 
Bhagavad Gita is surely one of those joyous 
tokens of the penetrating of the Hindu mind 
with the spiritual tone and purity of Jesus, 
for in all the Hindu literature there is no 
such chaste and beautiful poem as this one. 
And in Mohammedanism, the faith that least 
promises healthy reaction from contact be- 
cause of a certain induration of mind and 
finality of religious positions, even here the 
preaching of the gospel has not been without 
effect upon the system itself. There has arisen 
in India, where Mohammedanism is in least 
vexed contact with Christianity, a school of 


interpretation which proposes boldly to throw 
aside all the traditional literature of the faith, 
and even begins to raise questions concerning 
the ethics of Mohammed's personal life and 
conduct, while Buddhism, feeling the edge of 
the Christian objections, has largely lost the 
profound pessimism which lies at the core of 
the system, and has invented the "Amitaba- 
Buddha," in whom there is a distinct approach 
to the hopefulness and cheer of outlook that 
characterize Christianity. Apart, therefore, 
altogether from any direct profession of Chris- 
tianity by the various peoples of these other 
religions, the religions themselves are lifted 
to higher levels and not infrequently recog- 
nize, through the life of their own defenders, 
the great value of the Christian teaching in 
helping them to find the best that is in them- 
selves and to exclude the less worthy accre- 
tions of the degenerate centuries. 

We turn from these central objections to 
consider less fundamental opposition to the 
support and forwarding of foreign missions. 
I put them in the simpler forms in which, with 
wearying reiteration, they are conveyed to our 
ears : 

First. There are heathen enough at home; 
by which is meant that the full activities of 
the church might well be spent on the irrelig- 


ious and ignorant in the homeland. It is some- 
how supposed that every effort to spread the 
gospel abroad is subtractetl from possible 
effort at home; and that if we did not have 
China and Africa so much on our minds, 
we would have New York and Chicago more 
deeply entrenched in our plan and effort. 
When the statement is made by those \n ho do 
not understand the genius of Christianity, it 
may be passed with allowance, but when some- 
times, in the eagerness of pleading for home 
causes, words like these fall from the lips of 
intelligent Christians, patience is more sorely 
tried, for the fact is that Christianity is a re- 
ligion of such universal benevolence, and 
Christ conceived his gospel in such a temper 
of universal benefaction, that one cannot im- 
pede or fail to promote its progress anywhere 
without blighting it everywhere. The direct 
words of Jesus are to this effect. In his last 
great charge to his disciples he said, "Go ye 
therefore, and teach all nations, . . . teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you : and lo, I am with you alway, 
even unto the end of the world." 

When one remembers the handful of unim- 
portant people in a remote and subject prov- 
ince to whom these words were spoken, they 
amaze one as outlining the most superbly im- 


possible program of less than one thousand peo- 
ple — for the most part humble peasants and 
fishermen of a despised race, without learning, 
without prestige of any kind, led by a humble 
carpenter who had just been reported crucified 
as a criminal — undertaking the religious revo- 
lution of all mankind and the introduction of 
a teaching and practice which should en- 
throne in the hearts of men the love of God 
and the universal love of man. And yet any- 
thing less than the universality of his pro- 
gram would have defeated it at the very 
beginning, for, if many of these same Jews, 
brought up in a narrower system, had had 
their way, they would have kept the Gentiles 
out of the Christian Church, forcing them to 
enter through the narrow door of Jewish pros- 
elytism. There is no clear understanding of 
that great controversy which finds such large 
expression in Saint Paul's epistles, except as 
one sees in it the beating of the universal 
heart of the gospel against the narrow bonds 
of country and race. 

Had Saint Paul thought the thoughts or 
spoken the words of these modern objectors, 
how different would have been the course of 
Christianity! It would have become the nar- 
row cult of Judaism, and the splendor of its 
early achievements and the permanent con- 


tribution it luis made to the etliical and spir- 
itual life of tlie race would have been greatly 
constricted. One can imagine when, in a 
vision of the night, the historic man of Mace- 
donia appeared to Paul, crying, "Come over 
and help us," one of these narrower-visioned, 
lying at his elbow, whispering in the stillness 
of the night, counsels of prudence — "There are 
brethren enough at home" — we hear him say: 
"The millions of Jewry and those among whom 
they are sprinkled in these populous regions 
of Asia may surely engage your time and 
thought to the full. Let no hallucinations of 
the night move you from what must be duty 
when seen in the clear light of day.'' To all 
such objectors Paul would have answered 
then, as the instructed Christian must answer 
now, "Assuredly gathering that the Lord hath 
called us for to preach the gospel unto them, 
we endeavor to go into Macedonia." Out of 
that historic voyage came the foundations of 
Christianity in Europe, later Boniface in Ger- 
many, and still later Gregory, who, seeing the 
group of English exposed in the slave market 
of Rome, cried out, ^Wo7i-AngU, sed AngeW ; 
with the ensuing voyage of Augustine to the 
south of England, the Christianization of 
Britain, and the later occupation of North 
America with the vifforous descendants of 


these early converts to Christianity. All this 
may be traced to the neglect of the timid coun- 
sels of our moderns, who fear hurt to the home- 
land from the zeal of large undertakings for 
foreign lands. 

I must not be understood to at all deny the 
loud and peremptory call for a more thorough 
Christianization of the homeland. The re- 
proach of much permitted evil marring the 
social order and poisoning our political life, 
carrying millions of our people to lower levels 
of life and conduct than are at all thinkable in 
a really Christian land, must cause every lover 
of his country to ardently devote himself to 
the cure of our own ills. There is ample room 
for the larger forthput of our energies as 
Christian people than we have yet shown in 
the treatment of the religiously neglected 
populations of our cities and our frontiers. 
All manner of moral reform and spiritual 
quickening is called for wheresoever we turn 
in this fair America; but let it be clearly 
understood that the same edge of loyalty to 
Jesus Christ that carries the church into the 
farthest-flung missions is that upon which 
alone we can depend for the abiding enthu- 
siasm and sacrificial labor that home missions 
demand. The arrest of foreign missions would 
presently mean the death of home missions. 


The genius of ('hristiauity is such that there 
must be a full-hearted loyalty to the whijlc 
program, or there will presently be a decay of 
interest and devotion to any of it. 

And, secondly, it is urged that, with largi' 
effort there is great poverty of results. 
''Where," asks the critic, "is there anything 
like an adequate response to the large invest- 
ments of earnest-hearted men and women, 
who, at the cost of millions of dollars and 
large pains and sacrifice to themselves, have 
been flung into this unfruitful enterprise?" 
Here, again, these statements are easier to 
make than compute, for the reason that the 
currents of life cross each other, and there is 
nothing more difficult than to say such and 
such causes are at work, and such and such 
are the direct outcomes. So many streams are 
commingled in the great river of life that to 
exactly define the quality and color imparted 
by each stream is beyond our limited knowl- 
edge. Nevertheless, what have foreign mis- 
sions done in non-Christian lands? 

Apart altogether from the individual con- 
verts to Christianity and the planting of in- 
fant churches in many lands, the mere declara- 
tion of high spiritual truth and the illustra- 
tion — in measure, at least^ — of the power that 
these truths hold in conduct, as seen in the 


homes and lives of the missionaries, produce 
amazing results. Men are so constituted that 
they cannot hear of the better without grow- 
ing discontented with the worse. Human na- 
ture is at bottom not depraved but seeking 
good. It is often misled; but there is in the 
heart of it a divine discontent with anything 
less than the best that it knows, and, when at 
any turn of the road it meets something that 
is better than it has hitherto known, when all 
misunderstandings are cleared away, racial 
prejudices turned aside and clear apprehen- 
sion is had of the strange truth now come into 
sights — there is an inevitable drawing near 
toward it. 

Bosworth Smith, that ardent admirer of the 
best that there is in Mohammedanism, who 
saw values in it that other eyes could not see, 
has somewhere a noble passage in which he 
defends the attempt of Christianity to lead 
Islam to higher heights. He says that the man 
who thinks that truth can be held in a closed 
hand is ignorant of its character, and insists 
that when the nobler spirits of different re- 
ligions meet they must sit down and discuss 
the matter, and, in the end, the nobler truths 
of each must modify and affect the other. 

This is exactly what has happened in the 
contact of Christianity, through its missions, 


with (lie j^roat faiths of tlie non-Christian 
world. The purer tenets of Christianity, its 
sublime ethical codes, its high spiritual vision, 
its teaching of justice and mercy, and its in- 
culcation of the spirit of brotherhood and a 
fine philanthropy toward all the distressed 
and sorroAV-smitten in life have forcibly im- 
pressed the faiths it confronts in all lands; 
and every one of them has taken on a purer 
ethical character and is sounding a deeper 
religious note because of Christianity's pres- 
ence. The very first effect is to exorcise the 
cruelties and grosser forms of lust and impur- 
ity, that through human weakness have be- 
come mixed with the teachings of the ethnic 
faith. A thousand immoralities and cruelties 
have fled from the public life of India and 
China, and are fleeing from the dark stretches 
of Africa, smitten by the invisible sword, by 
the aroused human spirit, awakened among 
all the peoples by the hearing of the higher 

The effect of the proclamation of Christ's 
noble and elevating teachings upon the "lesser 
breeds without the law" is almost magical, 
and if among the older faiths the earnest con- 
tention of their sons and daughters is that the 
purer meanings were always held in the an- 
cient words, and that they shine with their own 


light, having cast off the impurities that had 
gathered about them, and that this light is 
not the reflection of Christianity, it matters 
little. We know that this light did not shine 
before Christ came to the people. The by- 
product of the Christian preaching is the 
waking of all the latent good, as well as the 
taking on much new good, by putting finer con- 
tent into the older terms. But one need not 
stop with these merely incidental, though most 
valuable, outcomes. There is a positive cleans- 
ing of public opinion and an openly promul- 
gated code of conduct hitherto unknown — a 
new^ valuation of man as man and of woman as 
the partner of man, his sharer in lifers burdens 
and, with him, the crown of creation, and a 
new softness and tenderness of feeling thrown 
around childhood. In a word, both in the 
public mind and in the homes of the people the 
presence of the Christian missionary and all 
that he stands for brings new ideas into the 
social order and a new atmosphere- into the 
home. All this is, of course, very gradual. A 
hundred modern forces are playing upon the 
whole problem; but only the willfully blind 
can fail to see how large a place Christian mis- 
sions has in making this new day. 

When in India, for instance, one sees the 
formation of women's clubs, in which political, 


social, and even religious questions are dis- 
cussed, with an occasional program of music 
rendered by these ladies themselves, and con- 
trasts this with the ordinary life of Hindu 
women a century ago when Christian missions 
were young, it will be seen that the social im- 
pact has not been small. The Hindu apologist 
will retort that in earliest Hinduism the 
women held a distinguished place. Let us be 
thankful that the voice of Christ avails to call 
this ancient cult to restore the best it ever had. 
And so in many other directions. The effort 
to overcome the caste segregation and to treat 
men as men, the growing recognition of the 
individual as over against the thraldom of the 
family traditions, the earnest desire to mora- 
lize the gods, to cut off the unholy practices 
that have grown up in the temple service, the 
manifest eagerness to bring forward the best 
and to cut off the unworthy — these also are 
tributes to the presence of the Christian prop- 

Third. Still more directly, however, is felt 
the actual presence of the infant Christian 
churches which in all the non-Christian lands 
are growing to-day faster than ever before. 
The last census of India shows that, though 
the population at large increased but eight 
per cent, the Christian population, which now 


numbers about three millions, had grown 
thirty per cent. Much concern was expressed 
by the Hindu newspapers at this alarming 
fact, as they chose to term it. What is more, 
these increasing numbers of converts are not 
so entirely from the lowest class, as formerly. 
The very success of Christianity among the 
low-caste is bringing an increasing number 
of the nobler spirits of the higher caste into 
the Christian brotherhood; and even the low- 
caste converts are so transformed by Chris- 
tian education and the atmosphere of Chris- 
tian liberty that in two generations they are 
indistinguishable from the high-caste Hindus 
among whom they live. There is many a 
Christian gentleman in India who is profes- 
sionally a doctor or lawyer or business man 
or gospel preacher or college professor whose 
grandfather was dug out of the lowest stratum 
of Hindu society. And, again, in proportion 
to the energies expended — the men and women 
and means actually invested — the cold statis- 
tical returns show a very much larger percen- 
tage of increase in the foreign churches than 
in the home churches. I am not unaware that 
a bald comparison is misleading; neverthe- 
less, I know that the entire missionary invest- 
ment of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
India is but sixty-six and two thirds per cent 


of the amount wo expend in the Methodism of 
New York city and its suburbs. Methodism 
spends in New Yorlv city about nine hundred 
thousand dollars a year; in India from all 
sources about six hundred thousand dollars. 

The statistics of membership show that 
South Dakota advanced from 1908 to 1912 
from 14,800 to 17,100, or sixteen per cent. The 
flourishing State of California advanced from 
54,400 to 67,850, or about twenty-five per cent. 
Methodism in India advanced from 90,000 to 
171,000, or ninety per cent. 

The opposition of the critics at this point 
can scarcely be accepted. That Christianity 
has very much to learn in the methods of ap- 
proach to the peoples of the world; that we 
need a much deeper sympathy for those who 
differ from us, and a very much higher appre- 
ciation of the values that their religions al- 
ready hold, become plainer every year; and it 
is very much to be desired that we shall all 
learn better methods of approach, so that the 
essential beauty of Christ be not hidden or dis- 
figured by our unloveliness. When these les- 
sons are learned the way to the heart of the 
non-Christian world will be much wider 
opened and more easily traveled; and that 
promised day will then not be far off when 
"nations shall be born in a day.'' The skies 


are already lighting with the promise of that 
coming day, and, so far from being distressed 
at the poverty of results, the missionaries 
themselves eagerly forecast the outcomes of 
those great movements toward Christianity 
which have already begun in nearly every land. 
More petty criticisms are leveled against the 
costliness of the missionaries. They live, we 
are told, in palatial residences and in much 
luxury, and their ease and comparative afflu- 
ence of surroundings bear evidence of but little 
of the sacrificial spirit. Here, again, the par- 
tial truth makes the essential unfairness of 
the statements difficult to meet. In many in- 
stances the missionaries do live in comfortable 
homes. They are trained men and women, 
whose preparations have been costly. Trans- 
planted to distant and often unfavorable cli- 
mates, it would be folly for the church to risk 
their health and usefulness by putting them 
into insanitary and narrow surroundings. 
True economy here is to treat your mission- 
aries well, for, in contrast with the merchants 
and diplomatic officers from their own coun- 
tries, their terms of service in the field are 
very much longer, and the ardor of their labors 
continually threatens to assault their health 
under unfriendly climatic conditions. As for 
their luxurious habits of life, etc., when it is 

THE PlIILirriNES 31 

stated that a junior clerk in any bank or house 
of business is paid more than a missionary 
family, and has, at that, all manner of special 
perquisities, it will be seen how little truth 
there is in this statement. AVhen these re- 
ports are brought by travelers who have en- 
joyed the hospitality of mission homes, the}^ 
are doubly mean. The story is still current 
in Foochow, China, of the man and wife who 
were entertained in several mission homes, at 
which a boiled ham regularly appeared. This 
extravagance was severely censured by the 
guests on their return home, but only the mis- 
sionary families knew that it was the same 
ham that had traveled from house to house, 
being surreptitiously admitted through the 
back door. 

The last and perhaps the most captious of 
all the criticisms that I notice is that the 
missionaries spoil the people by giving them 
lofty ideas and so prevent them from being as 
useful as they were before the missionary con- 
tact. To this the missionaries would imme- 
diately plead guilty. It is true that contact 
with the missionary and his message does 
help men to discover themselves; and the 
meanest coolie of India or China, when he dis- 
covers his essential manhood, will refuse to be 
cuffed and kicked by any white man, however 


important he may think himself. And he will 
ask for larger wages than the miserable pit- 
tances upon which he has hitherto consented 
to live. But who that has any regard for men 
as men but will rejoice in this growing self- 
respect and in the assertion of it in all legiti- 
mate ways? If "spoiling the people" means 
spoiling them for imposition and contemptu- 
ous disrespect, then the missionary should be 
congratulated upon achieving this end. And, 
as for the critical and insincere accusations 
against the native Christians as "being rice 
Christians," the history of the Boxer rebellion 
and of the late revolution in China, in which 
the Christians sustained so heroic and so im- 
portant a part, must stop the mouths of these 
railers against the brethren, if anything can 
avail to do so. 

On the other hand, turning away from this 
criticism — much of which is neither well 
founded nor really intelligent — I call your at- 
tention to the estimate in which men of breadth 
of view and depth of insight estimate the mis- 
sionary movement as they have found it in the 
great non-Christian lands. I will not call the 
roll of witnesses, but simply say that practi- 
cally nearly all the men of the highest political 
position — ministers and diplomats — bear wit- 
ness to the value of missions in stimulating 


the peoples of the land to liijj^her ideals and to 
the achievement of nobler life. A sinp^le quo- 
tation from Minister Conger, who shared the 
Peking siege during the Boxer rebellion, with 
many of the missionaries, must suffice: "For 
several years I was most intimately associated 
Avith the American missionaries in China, and 
I take genuine pleasure and pride in certify- 
ing to all the world, and particularly to you 
who support and stand behind them, that they 
are a body of men and women who, measured 
by the good they do, by the sacrifices they 
make, the trials they endure, and the risks 
they take, are veritable heroes, whose abso- 
lutely unselfish devotion to humanity is sur- 
passed nowhere upon the face of the earth. 
They are the pioneers in all that land. They 
are invariably the forerunners and forebearers 
of all that is best in Western civilization. It 
is they who, armed with only the Bible and 
schoolbooks, and sustained by a faith which 
gives them unflinching courage, have pene- 
trated the darkest interior of that great em- 
pire, hitherto unvisited by foreigners, and 
blazed the way for the oncoming commerce, 
which everywhere has quickly followed them. 
It was they who first planted the banner of 
the Prince of Peace in every place where now 
floats the flag of commerce and trade. The 


dim pathways which they traced, often mark- 
ing them with their life's blood, are being 
rapidly transformed into great highways of 
travel and trade, and are fast becoming lined 
with chapels, schoolhouses, and railway sta- 
tions, where heretofore were found only idol- 
atrous shrines and lodging places for wheel- 
barrow men and pack mules." 

This is true also of observant travelers who 
have spent enough time in the lands they 
visited to make personal inquiry and to arrive 
at independent judgment. These are men who 
have not taken their opinions at the bar of the 
hotels that dot the fringes of Asia, nor on 
board the steamship lines, where religion in 
any of its accents is not especially known nor 

Even the larger men of the non-Christian 
world have borne their testimony to the value 
of the missionary. Listen to Professor Rubra, 
of Delhi : ^The great contribution of the mis- 
sionary to India is the bringing of the sacred 
and inviolable personality of Jesus Christ. He 
is accepted by millions in India as a great 
Prophet. Many acknowledge his supremacy. 
Scores of people read the Gospels and frankly 
declare, ^That is the Life to be copied.' These 
are the things that the critics of the Christian 
missionaries often fail to see." And who, that 

THE PUlLirriNES 35 

has read them, can ever forget the words of 
the great Marshal Oyama, in reply to the re- 
quest of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion to distribute Bibles among the Japanese 
troops in the very thick of the campaign 
against Russia, when he said, "Yes ; come and 
go among my brave men whenever you please. 
Do them all the good you can, and may the 
God of battles abundantly bless you and 
them"? Nor can one forget the words of the 
last great Chinese delegation which visited 
this country before the Chinese revolution, 
whose members on several occasions bore 
frank witness to their high appreciation of the 
services being rendered by the missionaries in 
their great, needy land. The President of 
China, Yuan Shih Kai, says: "Protestant 
Christianity entered the Orient from the Occi- 
dent over a century ago. The progress of the 
church has been slow and difficult, partly be- 
cause China was conservative in the olden days 
and regarded anything new with suspicion. 
In the past few years the spirit of reform pre- 
vailed among our scholars, who devoted their 
attention to Western learning, as well as to 
Western religions. Thus gradually the ob- 
jects and policy of Christian missions became 
known. Moreover, the different missions have 
achieved much success, both in works of 


charity and in educational institutions. On 
the one hand, they have conferred many favors 
on the poor and destitute, and, on the other, 
they have won golden opinions from all classes 
of our society. The reputation of Christian 
missions is growing every day, and the preju- 
dice and the misunderstanding which formerly 
existed between the Christian and the non- 
Christian have gradually disappeared, which 
will surely prove to be for the good of China." 

Perhaps it is a poor business to be engaged 
in even discussing this matter of the status 
of missions and missionaries. Their record 
speaks for itself; their labors have availed be- 
yond their utmost dreams; and the compara- 
tive handful of picked men and women, whom 
Canon Farrar described as "the elite of the 
Christian world, the chivalrous souls of the 
Christian army," this handful of men and 
women, I say, have literally "through faith 
subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, ob- 
tained promises." 

They are revolutionizing society. They are 
waking ancient peoples from the graves of the 
past. They are kindling a new passion for 
freedom. They are breaking the bonds of an- 
cient superstitions and conservative tradi- 
tions. They are breathing new life into multi- 
plied millions of the human families. If there 


he a rcbirtli in C'liina — and the pan^^jjs of now 
life are being felt in India, and the dark places 
of Africa are being wrested from the dominion 
of cruelty and lust — if, in a word, the thral- 
dom of ignorance and wrong is being over- 
turned in half the world, the commanding 
figure behind the whole movement that is do- 
ing these things is the humble missionary. 

And now, dismissing all questions of criti- 
cism, let me come to a few direct propositions 
regarding foreign missions. 

1. The very genius of Christianity is mis- 
sionary. Not dependent upon a text or a chap- 
ter, its whole conception of God is of the Uni- 
versal Father, its whole conception of Christ 
a World Redeemer, its whole conception of 
the kingdom that into it shall come all — from 
East, West, North, and South. Its prayers 
breathe the universal benevolence; its hymns 
are pitched to the key of universal praise. 
When Commodore Perry, in the presence of 
the wondering Japanese, insisted upon going 
on with the usual divine service of the Sab- 
bath, though distinguished and curious visi- 
tors were on board, the hymn he announced 


All people that on earth do dwell, 
Sing to the Lord with cheerful voice. 

Her human weakness ami littleness have 


often blinded the vision of tlie church, and 
there have been dark ages in which there was 
no open vision either of God or of the world as 
God's world. But whenever the Church has 
caught sight of the blue above her she has im- 
mediately sought those horizons where the 
earth that stretched from her feet met the blue 
that held the light above her head. Her quick- 
ened vision of the spiritual has always served 
to stir her heart to wider missionary enter- 

2. And this is entirely in accord with what 
we would look for, for Christ is Lord of both 
worlds. Religion is not something apart from 
life. Religion is at once for the interpretation 
of life and for its ennobling; and if one has 
found that secret of the Lord whereby the heart 
is cleansed from the dominion and love of 
wrong, and the eye grows single because it is 
full of light, it Avere a sorry selfishness that 
would prevent the utmost effort to convey the 
knowledge of this wondrous alchemy of the 
Spirit to all the fellow pilgrims Avho labor 
along the pathway of life. No, no; given the 
truth and the serviceableness of Christianity, 
given the reality of God's love shed abroad in 
the heart of the Christian, then the unavoid- 
able sequence is an earnest and absorbing pro- 
gram of missions — to convey to all the other 


children the great good, the food and to spare 
to be found in the Father's house. 

Young men and women, no nobler course 
calls you who have put your own lips to the 
chalice of life and tasted for yourselves the 
goodness of God in Christ your Lord, than to 
carry that chalice, through whatever difficul- 
ties and oppositions, to thirsty lips in dry and 
dreary lands where no water is. 

Ever the voice of Him who is high and lifted 
up calls, "Who will go for us, and whom shall 
we send?" May he not hear the glad response, 
"Here am I, send me''? 

The truest answer to all criticisms of mis- 
sions is more and more devoted missionaries. 






No adequate account can be given of the 
progress of civilization in pagan and ^Moslem 
lands without large account being taken of the 
missionary and the outcome of his work. 

The missionary has always felt within him 
the thrust of gTeat ideas. He has always be- 
lieved himself to be the custodian of great 
truths which he, "having freely received," is 
under the compulsion of love to "freely give." 
From the beginning, this thrust has given him 
an inner uneasiness more powerful than all 
the bands that seek to restrain him, for — 

1. He realizes the greatness of his posses- 
sions. He has received, in his own conscious- 
ness as the matters of his owm personal ex- 
perience, the revelation of great, vital spir- 
itual truths. 

2. He knows God as Father and Friend, the 
Lord and Regulator of life, the Author of all 
its providences, the Source of all its gifts. 
"He openeth his hands — his creatures are fed.^' 
"He lifts up the light of his countenance" and 
his believing children rejoice in the sunshine 
of his favor. 



3. He knows God in Christ as the Redeemer 
and Saviour from sin. All the power of sin 
to shackle the soul, all the sad tragedy of fu- 
tile, unavailing effort to break these shackles 
unaided, he has experienced. 

When awakened conscience threw a blazing 
light upon the pages of life's record he saw 
and wept and struggled, but, alas! this only 
deepened the sense of sin and futility. The 
more spiritual the man the deeper the sense of 
sin. The whole head is sore and the whole 
heart is faint; and the more intimately he 
scanned his spiritual condition the more 
clearly he perceived "the wounds and bruises 
and putrefying sores"; and, in the midst of 
this, while crying, like Saint Paul, "Who shall 
deliver me from the body of this death?" there 
came to him the word of One mighty to save. 
One able to deliver; and the missionary has 
ever been one to whom the tragedies and crises 
of the spiritual life have been a matter of 
knowledge from experience. Biographies of 
all the greater missionaries will show this: 
whatever wing of the church they may come 
from, they were men who had been greatly 
exercised in soul — from Paul, who was three 
days without meat or drink, to Wesley, and 
Hudson Taylor, and Livingstone, and Moffat, 
and Griffiths John, and Bashford, and Zwe- 


mer, and many others; they have been and are 
men who have felt the darkness and weight of 
sin, and have consciously escaped through 
Jesus Christ their Lord. 

4. These are men who, thus delivered out 
of the hand of their enemies, have been filled 
with a tenderness and a breadth of compassion 
toward all men. They have felt that One is 
their Father, even God, and One, their Re- 
deemer and Saviour, even Jesus Christ, our 
Lord; and, as a necessary corollary, they 
recognize that all God's human creatures are 
their brethren, and that Christ, by the grace 
of God, has tasted death for every man, and 
that they owe it, therefore, to all men to 
hasten to them, at whatever cost, to tell them 
the good news of the provision made for them 
and of the great redemption provided. They 
must go. As against all pleadings, tlie/y must 
go. Father, friend, wife, children often hold 
out beseeching hands to restrain, but they 
must go. 

When Heniy Martyn believed that God 
would have him go to India, life in that re- 
mote land seemed so difficult and full of 
danger that, much as he IovckI her, he thought 
he could not take his affianced bride with him. 
The bond of affection that held her to him 
was strong, but his missionary call was 


stronger. Sadly, but resolutely, they deter- 
mined together that he should go and she, un- 
married, stay behind. The claims of the spir- 
itually destitute prevailed over the tenderest 
ties of their mutual affection. He left her, 
sailed for India, and, though their love grew 
stronger rather than less, they never met 
again. Poor Henry Martyn burned himself 
out with the intensity of his labors, and died 
alone under the blazing heat of a Persian sun. 

Less than two years ago one of our mission- 
aries, a rare woman and markedly effective in 
her work, told me of the man to whom she had 
been betrothed and from whom she had parted 
because he lacked preparation for a mission- 
ary career and the call of God was within her. 
Deeply wounded in spirit, sobbing aloud, she 
cried, "I loved him so, and yet. Bishop Old- 
ham, I had to come, and I am now so happy." 

More constant is the steady strain upon 
missionary mothers and fathers, who must 
leave their children for moral and mental 
training and for physical development in the 
homeland, while they return heart-burdened 
to their fields of labor. 

Dr. Reid, when secretary of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, told the story of a visit of 
Nathan Sites, of China, who had recently 
landed in New York, and had come to the 


Mission Rooms to meet his son. The mission- 
ary became engaged in earnest conversation 
with the secretary. Presently a young man 
stepped into the room and looked inquiringly 
at the two; they in turn looked at him with 
interest. Said the young man to Dr. Reid, 
"Is this the secretary ?'' "Yes,'' replied the 
doctor, "I am Dr. Reid.'' "Can you tell me," 
said the young man, "where I may find my 
father. Dr. Nathan Sites, of China?" With a 
cry the older man leaped to his feet, threw his 
arms about the bewildered youth, saluting him 
with the words, "My son ! my son !" They had 
been so long apart that they did not recognize 
each other. 

To men and women of refined sensibility 
and ardent domestic affection there can be 
only one explanation of such conduct as the 
instances we have described, only one supreme 
motive can thus overbear the strongest feel- 
ings of our nature — "The love of Christ con- 
straineth me." As against all the drawings of 
natural affection and the protests of the poor 
human heart, when the cry of the destitute 
pagan world is in their ears and in their 
hearts, in spite of everything, they must go! 

The missionary is moved by the pitiable 
plight of heathenism which is not with- 
out loftv teachincrs and larjxe values to its 


followers, but in which I nowhere know of 
any teaching of the Fatherhood of God, 
deeply as the human spirit responds to this 
idea when once presented to it; for there is 
hid in the heart of every earnest man a long- 
ing for the Father of Spirits. He may not 
know him as such; he may not know him at 
all to name what he longs for; but, behind all 
ignorance and misunderstanding, behind all 
Avanderings and betrayals, the human spirit 
still longs for the Divine Father. Where has 
the Father of the human spirit been revealed? 

Confucius sinned against China by turning 
the eyes of that great people from the heavens 
to the earth, and, while he gave them an ad- 
mirable code of ethics, he failed to give them 
any vision of the great Grod for whom the hu- 
man spirit longs. 

Buddha absolutely denied a personal God; 
and the idea of the Divine Fatherhood is not 
only not found in Buddha's teaching, but is 
abhorrent to it. 

Mohammed, in all the ninety-nine names he 
attributes to God, "The Powerful," "The Mer- 
ciful," "The Great Potentate," etc., never 
dares to call him "Father." Indeed, Moham- 
medanism looks upon such a name applied to 
God as belittling and blasphemous. 

There has been but one Great Teacher who 


clearly taught the Divine Fatherhood, and 
when to him humanity in the person of the pes- 
plexed Philip turns and says, "Lord, show us 
the Father, and it sufficeth us,'' we may liear 
him reply, ^'Have I been so long time with you, 
and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he 
that hath seen me hath »seen the Father''; 
and, if this poor orphan world is to find refuge 
in the heart of the Divine Father, it can only 
he through Him who is the way, as well as 
the truth and the life. How powerfully this 
truth affects the non-Christian mind, when 
clearly taught, I may illustrate by two widely 
different cases in my own knowledge. 

In the city of Malacca, in Southeastern Asia, 
there came one day a Chinaman to a small 
gathering of Christians who were then attend- 
ing the Methodist church. They met for 
prayer and fellowship and were encouraging 
each other by reciting what God had done for 
each. When it came to the case of the stranger 
he arose and said : "I live two hundred miles 
from Amoy, in the interior, and was brought 
up with very little knowledge of God. When 
visiting that city I saw a building lighted up 
and went into it ; and then I heard that I had 
a Father in heaven, that he was a great Spirit, 
and that he looked down upon me with tender 
affection. My heart was exceedingly glad, and 


I arose and asked the man who was speaking 
how I could communicate with my Father. 
He said that if I would humbly bow before 
him and reach out to him with affectionate 
desire to praise his goodness, and to thank 
him for his love, I would hear my Father speak 
to me in the depths of my own soul. That 
night the people assembled at that building 
and brought candles and, lighting these can- 
dles, walked around the church, while some 
of them sang the praises of God." Said the 
man, with kindling light in his eyes, "I did not 
know much about all this, but I held my candle 
higher than the rest, that my Father might see 
I was saluting; and he did speak to me and I 
knew in my heart that he recognized his child.'' 
He was evidently a humble, sincere man, who 
had strayed into a Roman Catholic church 
when they were holding a mission and, as is 
often the case, the essential truth in the teach- 
ing that he had heard wakened in him spiritual 
hungering and thirsting which the good God 
had satisfied by the ministration of his Holy 

The other case is of a vastly rlifferent type 
of man, one of our own students from Singa- 
pore, a man of singularly clear and penetrat- 
ing mind, who is now in his senior year at 
Chicago University. I had heard that his re- 


ligious life was being impaired by theological 
accents to which he was unaccustomed. I 
wrote him with great solicitude. In his reply 
he said, "^ly mind ceaselessly contemplates, 
with a holy joy, the fact that God is my Father 
and I humbly rejoice in him." "But w^hat 
about Christ?" I inquired, when I met him 
later. With eager haste he answered, "He 
brought me to the Father." 

5. Again, the heathen world needs a Re- 
deemer. It needs, perhaps as a preparation, a 
deeper consciousness of its own moral ailment. 
It needs conviction of sin, for it is true that, 
except in the case of a few rare souls, in the 
absence of the gospel light men tend to spir- 
itual self-conceit and vain-glorying rather than 
to a recognition of the deep-seated sin and 
moral pollution and disorder of the spirit. 
And yet I know of no people who, when the 
crust is broken and you come to closer grips, 
do not betray a measure of uneasiness and con- 
sciousness of the fact that it is not well with 
them. What, for example, mean the pilgrim- 
ages and austerities of India — men traveling 
hundreds of miles, measuring their own length 
on the dusty road, to the sacred shrines to fin'l 
forgiveness for their sins? 

Even in China this eager quest after rest 
and satisfaction of the soul throucrh mortifi- 


cation of the body is not unknown. A mission- 
ary of the China Inland Mission once ap- 
peared in a service I was conducting in Eng- 
lish in Singapore. I saw him in the congre- 
gation, and he agreed that when, in the course 
of the meeting, I asked him to tell us the most 
hopeful thing connected with his work in 
China, he would do so. When the time came 
he arose and said that behind his far inland 
station was a high hill, and on the hill a pe- 
culiarly sacred temple. To this shrine many 
devout pilgrims came from near and far. To 
many of these he had addressed himself, ask- 
ing whence they came and what brought them. 
The invariable reply was that wherever they 
had come from there was some pressure of in- 
ner need they hoped would be met by wor- 
shiping at the shrine. On their return he 
would meet them at the foot of the hill and 
inquire, "Is it better with you?" and uni- 
formly they would reply, sadly shaking their 
heads, "It is no different.-' "Then,'' said he, 
"I would expound to them the teachings of 
Him who is the way, the truth, and the life." 
So, it will be seen, there is found everywhere 
some apprehension of sin, some discomfort in 
the moral disorder of the spirit; and, indeed, 
in rare cases, this rises under the welcomed 
presence of that Holy Spirit, who lighteth 


every man that comes into the world to vivid- 
ness of perception and acuteness of feelin«>. 
Never can I forj^et an old Hindu ascetic on the 
Godaverj, nor his answer on a certain occa- 
sion : "What are these discomforts, if only the 
pain within me would abate and my eyes might 
find the path?" 

Now, an immediate effect of the preaching 
of the gospel to all these is the vivifying of the 
sense of sin and the deepening of the sense of 
condemnation. Many a Hindu, Buddhist, or 
J^Ioslem may truly say, like Saint Paul, when 
hearing the Christian exposition of the rela- 
tion of the law to the inner life and the mo- 
tives that control outer conduct, "When the 
law came, sin revived and I died." Now, to 
all such, whether seeing clearly or imperfectly, 
there is exigent need not merely of moral illu- 
mination but means of deliverance. What use 
to make clearer to men the hopelessness of the 
disease from which they suffer, its malignancy 
and its corrosiveness, unless there go with this 
some message of hope in a Deliverer? And 
where shall deliverance be found? 

Here, again, the missionary brings a reve- 
lation, and the experience of a truth not to be 
found without the gospel he carries in his hand 
and in his heart. Standing amid aroused and 
expectant peoples, he repeats the cry of the 


prophet, saying, "Ho, every one that thirsteth, 
come ye to the waters, and he that hath no 
money; come ye, buy, and eat." And in an- 
swer to eager questions he confidently de- 
clares, "I know that my Redeemer liveth,'^ and 
in the face of all gainsaying, whether of the 
"authorities" or of lewder fellows of the baser 
sort, persistently he affirms, "God hath exalted 
Jesus Christ with his right hand to be a Prince 
and a Saviour; to give repentance and remis- 
sion of sins. And we are witnesses of these 
things/' Into the startled and attentive ear 
of the heathen world, he ceaselessly utters, 
"Jesus Christ, by the grace of God, tasted 
death for every man," and, significantly, he 
adds : "For when we were yet without strength 
[How accurately this describes his earnest- 
hearted hearers!], in due time Christ died for 
the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man 
will one die : yet peradventure for a good man 
some would even dare to die. But God com- 
mendeth his love toward us, in that, while we 
were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much 
more then, being now justified by his blood, 
we shall be saved from wrath through him. 
For if, when we were enemies, we were recon- 
ciled to God by the death of his Son, much 
more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by 
his life" (Rom. 5. 6-10). 


Who can describe the mingled wonder and 
delight that steals over an earnest-hearted 
"seeker of the light'' in the midst of the dark- 
ness as these declarations are carried by God's 
great messenger, the Holy Spirit, to the inner 

The story was told years ago of a young 
Japanese, who sought to enter a Presbyterian 
church in Tokyo. He was subjected to a some- 
what severe examination of his beliefs and his 
reasons for desiring to become a Christian. 
Perplexed and confused by the ordeal, he said, 
timidly : "Let me tell you in my own way why 
I wish to be a Christian. I was walking along 
the pathway of life and the path w^as steep 
and my limbs grew faint under me. I could 
scarcely drag one foot after the other. As 1 
wearily made my way I grew more and more 
faint and finally collapsed on the side of the 
road. The heat was intense. I was covered 
with dust, my tongue clove to the roof of my 
mouth, and my lips were cracked and parched 
with thirst. Then there appeared coming down 
the path a proud figure that stopped near me 
and, looking down at me, said : ^Why dost thou 
lie down in the dust? Dost thou not know 
how the superior man should bear himself? 
Arise and be such.' Humbly I answered: 
'Father Confucius, of the superior man I have 


heard, but, alas! I cannot be such as he, for 
I cannot even stand upon my feet. I am over- 
borne and my strength has failed me.' And 
with that the teacher left me and walked 
proudly along the way. Then came another of 
gentler mien. In drawing near he said : ^Alas ! 
son, why liest thou here thus? Hast thou not 
heard of the eightfold path — the path of right 
belief, right feelings, right speech, right 
actions, right means of livelihood, right en- 
deavor, right memory, right meditation. 
Arise, and walk the eightfold path ; then shalt 
thou reach the path of the Arahat, and then 
Nirvana.' And I answered, sadly: ^Alas! 
Father Buddha, I cannot walk the eightfold 
path, for there is no strength in me, and I can- 
not rise from the dust in which I lie.' Then, 
compassionately, he looked upon me and said, 
*Each must bear his own burden,' and slowly 
he went his way. 

"There came another who was a stranger 
to me. He also drew near. ^Son,' said he, 
^what ails thee?' And I answered, ^Sir, I am 
overborne; my strength has failed me; the 
heat oppresses, and I am parched and faint.' 
Tenderly he beheld me and said: 'Wouldest 
thou be recovered from thy weakness? De- 
sirest thou to walk the path?' And I said, ^Sir, 
greatly I desire.' He bowed over me and 


touched my ankle bones, and a strange thrill 
of life shot through me. He put his hand 
under my arm and said, ^Arise,' and, yielding 
to his word, feeling new strength in me, I 
arose. Still supporting me with his arm, he 
led me along the path and discovered to me, 
close by, a fountain of water; and there I 
eagerly drank and laved my face and my 
hands; and, still leaning on the stranger, I 
resumed the path and he whispered: *I will 
never leave thee, nor forsake thee. I will go 
with thee until thou hast accomplished the 
journey, and the path shall end at the gates 
of light.- And I said, ^Sir, what shall I call 
thee?' And he answered, ^I am Jesus of Naza- 
reth, the Saviour of men.' " Then, looking 
into the eyes of his examiners, the young man 
said : "It was through the words of a Japanese 
brother that Jesus thus came to me ; and now, 
I am his, and desire to join his church.'' 
Everywhere men need a Saviour. 

Again, the missionary after the first con- 
verts are gained rapidly multiplies himself in 
these his sons and daughters in the faith. For 
in the really serious undertaking of evangeliz- 
ing any land it is not the foreign missionary, 
but those whom he trains, and pours himself 
into, that really carry on the wider work. It 
is thev, with him standing well in the rear. 


that deliver the community-wide and nation- 
wide attack. 

It has always been so. Says a recent writer, 
"If we look back at the beginning and ask how 
Christianity won its wonderful triumphs in 
the Roman world, we find that it was because 
Christianity became indigenous in every coun- 
try, and every convert became a missionary.'' 
This is what Gibbon depicts in a sentence: 
"Every convert to Christianity felt it a sacred 
duty to diffuse among his relatives and friends 
the inestimable blessings which he had re- 
ceived." We can see the process going on. 
For a handful of poor men life is suddenly 
transfigured by the great message of the gos- 
pel, and they go straightway forth, each to his 
friends and neighbors, saying : "I was poor and 
wretched and unhappy. Life was hard and 
sorrow was over me like a cloud. I heard of 
Jesus, and though I expected nothing, I went, 
and lo! my life is renewed; love again throbs 
through my heart; hope again has shot the 
dark clouds with radiance ; I have tasted that 
God is good and gracious; come thou and taste 
also." It was not by the apostles nor by the 
great Inspired that the Eoman world was won 
for Christ; it was by the nameless common 
multitude, who, having tasted the living water, 
went forth with the urgent call : "Come, taste 


and see. God Is love and life, and is for jou/- 
It is a man's friend who can speak to liim so ; 
onl}^ in his own language can an invitation 
come to him in so compelling a way. A 
stranger and a foreigner cannot find the words 
which will bring such wonder to his heart; he 
must be of one heart and one mind with them 
who would win men in this manner. There 
are things so deep and sacred that a stranger 
intermeddleth not with them, and as then, so 

In Manchuria, a strong and living Christian 
Church has been evolved from ''the mass of 
foreigner-hating idolaters who filled the land." 
Of thirty thousand converts baptized in twenty 
years, that veteran missionary Dr. John Ross 
declared that only about one hundred were 
baptized as the direct result of the preaching 
of the missionaries ; the rest, tw^enty-nine thou- 
sand, nine hundred, were brought into the 
Christian Church through the influence and 
work of the native Christians. But the bright- 
est example of this is the church in Korea. 

In some cases in Korea it has actually been 
made a condition of church membership that 
the applicant should have endeavored to win 
others to Christ. A remarkable form of col- 
lection has sprung up in the Korean church — 
a collection of "davs of service." In the offer- 


tory the worshiper deposits, not money, but a 
pledge of the number of days of personal serv- 
ice he will give to the cause of Christ in the 
coming year. At one service a collection was 
taken of sixty-seven thousand days of personal 
evangelizing work, and the work which one 
native convert can do is strikingly illustrated 
by Dr. Christie, of Moukden : "A patient came 
to the Moukden hospital many years ago,'' he 
writes. ^'When admitted he had never heard 
the gospel, but before he left he had a clear 
knowledge of Christian truth, and showed an 
intense desire to make it known to others. For 
many years he witnessed for Christ, most of 
the time without salary of any kind and under 
no control but that of his heavenly Master. 
The missionary who had charge of the district 
where he labored till his martyrdom by the 
Boxers tells us that he was the direct means 
of leading at least two thousand souls into the 
fold of Christ.'' 

Thirty years ago Andreas, a fakir, with his 
begging bowl stood by the side of the road and 
heard the missionary tell the gospel story. 
Andreas was powerfully attracted by the pic- 
ture of Jesus, and when he had further learned 
that Jesus, like himself, was a homeless wan- 
derer, "having not where to lay his head," and 
when the further storv of the sacrificial suffer- 


ings of this Redeemer of men was told him, 
Andreas, moved to the depths, bowed on tlie 
roadside and gave himself to follow his Lord. 
He never w^ould change his ways of life. He 
retained his sad-colored garment; ate out of 
a beggar's bowl, and moved among the people 
declining to accept any regular appointment, 
but telling, with inimitable pathos, the story 
of Jesus Christ. He called hundreds of his 
fellow Hindus to sincere repentance and faith 
in his Lord. 

In the Philippine Islands, when evangelical 
missions were but twelve years old, I was 
presiding over the Annual Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Already, that 
Conference contained a majority of Filipino 
members. The Rev. H. C. Morrison, now of 
Wilmore, Kentucky, was visiting the Confer- 
ence. He is an earnest and forceful preacher 
of the great salvation. Addressing the Con- 
ference through an interpreter, he was urging 
that God's men should be ever of clean heart 
and pure life, and saying, if such men called 
upon God for a special anointing by his Holy 
Spirit, they would receive spiritual power to 
prevail with their ronntrymen. Eagerly, the 
young Filipinos inquired into the matter and 
with earnest prayer called upon God for the 
blessing of which Mr. Morrison spoke. Among 


these preachers was young Pedro Cruz. Six 
months later I found him at the most difficult 
station of Gapan, where intense bigotry had 
prevented the people from giving any opening 
to the work of gospel preaching; but when I 
reached there I found a little church crowded 
with people, and Pedro Cruz preaching with 
such power and in such demonstration of the 
Spirit that a large and effectual door was 
opened, hundreds were soundly changed in 
heart and life, and the whole community lifted 
to higher conceptions of conduct. But behind 
all these — the greater the distance behind the 
better^ — is he from whom the initial movement 
came and from whom much of the inspiration 
and counsel come through many years — the 
foreign missionary. The throne is often and 
wisely occupied by the indigenous Christian 
leaders, but the power behind the throne for 
the first two or three generations is the trusted 
teacher and father in Grod who brought the 
gospel to these who are now its exponents and 

Strange but powerful are the messages of 
the missionary, and through these the eyes of 
the pagan world are opened and the heart of 
the world is quickened in hope and loftiness of 
spiritual desire and expectation. The view- 
point of life is changed, and new ideals begin 


to dominate the individual and to be worked 
out in the social order. Long before Chris- 
tianity registers itself in numbers of converts 
and organized Christian churches, the message 
of the missionary is discovered profoundly af- 
fecting life around him. Notably will it be 
found that the features of the older faith 
that chiefly cramped the human faculty and 
thwarted progress are slowly being eliminated, 
and old pagan words rapidly find new Chris- 
tian content. Often an aroused national or 
race consciousness prevents the many from 
recognizing the debt to Christianity, since this 
religion is represented at first by foreigners, 
and often by foreigners whose racial affilia- 
tions are with peoples and nations whose po- 
litical and commercial dominance is feared and 
suspected; nevertheless, the facts are patent 
to any seeing eye. Outer changes are most 
apparent in contact with the ruder races, 
whose physical development immediately takes 
on marked movement. The missionary's mere 
presence, his greater and readier command of 
the natural resources all about him, the 
greater ease and wider comfort his knowledge 
carries with it, are all on the surface and soon 
find bungling but eager imitation. The amus- 
ing stories told of African chiefs appear- 
ing before foreign visitors wearing nothing 


but a silk hat and a soiled handkerchief, or 
carrying an umbrella and having a set of false 
teeth tied around the neck, only illustrate 
how some struggling idea of a finer becoming- 
ness than pure nudity had begun to operate; 
and, once begun, it Avill be a ceaseless thrust 
toward the outer forms of civilized life. But 
even more real, if less obvious, is the progres- 
sive change in the inner horizon of the indi- 
vidual and the society whom the missionary 
reaches. There is a self-attesting power in the 
gospel, and the great truths of God need only 
to be clearly stated in terms level to the under- 
standing of the people to silently win their 
way against all opposition; and, as with the 
ruder peoples, the first effects may be gro- 
tesque imitations of the outer dress of 
the bearer of the new teaching, so, often 
in the more developed peoples, the earliest 
mark of the felt presence of the evangel 
will be sincere but awkw^ard attempts to put 
upon the old religions the paraphernalia and 
habiliments of the new. And when this effort 
assumes the form just noted we may look for 
a constant upward tendency in the ideals and 
teachings of the old faith, alongside of which 
Christianity now sits down in silent appeal 
to compare the goods held for men and their 


To illustrate : Can anything be more signifi- 
cant, as I have already said, than India's mak- 
ing the "Bhagavad Gita" — the most spiritual 
of all excerpts from the liama3^ana — the text- 
book of modern Hinduism? Even more note- 
worthy is the Christian content put into the 
interpretation of the poem by your modern 
Hindu lecturer, whose reading has very mani- 
festly included the New Testament of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and whose 
mind has been shaped in the teachings of 
Christianity; indeed, his very vocabulary as 
he lectures, often in faultless English, is 
from that well of English undefiled, the King 
James Version of the New Testament; and, 
parallel with this and far outrunning the most 
forced meanings of even this great poem, is 
the modern Hindu consciousness of the strang- 
ling of the people by the caste system and the 
undue restrictions placed upon womanhood; 
and most praiseworthy are the gallant at- 
tempts that are being made to patronize the 
pariah and to educate and socially free the 
girls and the women. Perhaps even more 
markedly still does Hinduism bear the marks 
of the increasing vision of Christ in the num- 
ber of the reforming cults, which are seeking 
to recast the ancient theologies and introduce 
the ideas of scriptural holiness with which 


Christianity is charged, while even orthodox 
Hinduism endeavors to slough off its viler 
rites and customs. 

But the greatest outcome of the mission- 
ary's presence and message is found in the 
hearts and lives of increasing multitudes who, 
coming through severest opposition, and often 
enduring bitter persecution at the hands of 
their nearest and dearest friends, have openly 
broken with the past and have ventured their 
all, for time and eternity, upon the promises 
and power of Jesus Christ. The church at 
home knows little of the bitter fight of perse- 
cutions that many a humble heart goes through 
in pagan and Moslem lands in openly avowing 
Christ as his Saviour. 

Years ago, in Kolar, India, a remarkable 
lady from Scotland, Miss Louise Anstey, be- 
gan a mission. Soon after, a wasting famine 
desolated the land. The tender-hearted mis- 
sionary took hundreds of starving waifs off 
the street, and when the stress of famine was 
past, over six hundred of these were left on her 
hands. Courageously she continued her work, 
spending all her own fortune, and securing 
added help from philanthropic friends. Among 
the teachers she gathered about her was one 
named Narsamiah, a gentle youth of Brahman 
parentage. From the first he felt the deep 


earnestness of Miss Anstey's spirit and ad- 
mired her unselfish devotion to these children 
of alien race. When he sought to find an ex- 
planation of the missionary he came face to 
face with her Lord, and when he got to under- 
stand the meaning of Jesus Christ he yielded 
him his own heart's deepest loyalty and be- 
came a devoted disciple. His baptism was ar- 
ranged, and in spite of the earnest protestation 
of his father and mother, wife and brethren, 
Narsamiah was baptized into the Christian 
faith. So threatening were his former neigh- 
bors and friends that it was thought best that 
Narsamiah should spend that night in the 
school. Next morning his attention was at- 
tracted by all the sounds that are heard at a 
Hindu funeral — the solemn sound of the conch 
shell, the wailing of mourners, and the plain- 
tive piercing note of polygar horns. He looked 
and saw a funeral pyre built just outside the 
school compound, and there, the funeral torch 
in his hand, kindling the funeral pyre, was 
Narsamiah's own father attended by all the 
male members of the family. It was being 
dramatically set forth that the son was dead 
to the family, and they were solemnly engaged 
in his funeral rites. Such are the experiences 
the higher-caste men of India pass through to 
identifv themselves with the Christian faith. 


Companies of such men and women, as- 
sociated in groups, make little Christian 
churches through which the genius and teach- 
ings of Christianity are even better inter- 
preted to the surrounding mind than directly 
by the missionary himself. He must ever re- 
main an exotic; do what he will, he is still a 
foreigner, and a foreigner among peoples ever 
suspicious of anything not native. These 
others are of their own. Heart answers to 
heart and spirit to spirit; flesh of their flesh, 
bone of their bone, the messages the native 
churches convey are more immediate and more 

It is, therefore, a fine tribute to the quality 
of these earliest churches in non-Christian 
lands that the mass movements toward Chris- 
tianity always follow the birth of the little 
churches, for it is their example and silent 
teaching and vocal ministry that reach, with 
compelling power, the hearts of the people 
and make the later, wider movements possible. 
But through all these trying, waiting, rejoic- 
ing, triumphant years the missionary is to 
the infant church the source of endless inspira- 
tion and encouragement, while its members 
are to him the objects of tenderest solicitude, 
for he knows that it is through them the gospel 
must henceforth be illustrated and conveyed. 


If they fail, if they disappoint, it is not only 
they but all their neighbors who will be ter- 
ribly impeded and Christ will be dishonored. 
Every missionary knows better than most 
other people the yearnings of Saint PauFs 
heart when he wrote to the early Christians of 
Oalatia — "My little children of whom I trav- 
ail in birth again until Christ be formed in 
you." For, if the joy of victory and the 
blessedness of the garnered sheaves be his, his 
also is the parental anxiety and his the vica- 
rious suffering that the parental relation in- 

The outcomes of the processes and impacts 
we have discussed are various, but in the main 
they make for steady and often striking prog- 

Among other results, these stand in the 
foreground : 

1. The individual man discovers himself. 
He is no longer an oppressed member of a 
tribe or a family or a caste. He is not merely 
a subject, groveling, downtrodden by either 
king or priest ! he is a man, and so related to 
the heavens that he instinctively feels his 
rights on earth, and, feeling his rights, he 
claims them, and after a while he ivill have 
them. When a man really learns that God is 
his Father and Christ his Ke<loemor there is 


born in him, with great humilit.y toward God, 
a large access of respect for himself. He can 
no longer complacently submit to the tramp- 
ing out of the image of the Divine that he finds 
in himself, and he therefore begins to assert 
himself and to claim from himself and from 
all others such regard for himself as must 
presently work out in two ways: (1) he will 
begin to find, by the exercise of his own en- 
franchised powers, by the use of his own lib- 
erated energies, his due portions of this world's 
goods — food and raiment and shelter for him- 
self and his family; education for his mind 
and theirs, and freedom from unreasonable re- 
straint; freedom to think and order his own 
life and to worship God according to the dic- 
tates of his own conscience; and (2) these 
new springing desires will inevitably make 
him a disturber of the established order, for 
in no pagan land has he been taken account 
of as a free individual, but in every such coun- 
try it is insisted that he is merely a member 
of a caste, or a family, or a system ; and both 
these facts are matters that need the closest 
attention and the most careful and delicate 
direction — or, at least, suggestion — from the 
missionary. In all this transitional and diffi- 
cult period he is the pivotal man, and a wis- 
dom bevond his own he constantlv seeks for 


the intricacies of thought aud conduct that 
need illumination all about him. 

To return to the first of these: the coming 
of Christ into the experience of a man or com- 
munity at once begins to create an access of 
self-respect, which shows itself in greater and 
more courageous efforts to wring from con- 
ditions, however hard, a more hopeful supply 
for all his wants ; and the man, thus energized 
and stirred within, must succeed and does suc- 
ceed in changing his outer lot. 

Go to any Christian village in India, par- 
ticularly among those gathered from the 
poorest of the people, and you will imme- 
diately detect a difference between them and 
the neighboring heathen villages of their own 
status. The streets are cleaner, the houses are 
better built, the people are better fed and 
clothed; there is a school and a church build- 
ing and an air of thrift and cleanliness. Many 
things are still to be desired, but an unmis- 
takable change has already come. The gos- 
pel finds a family seated in the dirt on the 
baked-mud floor, without a stick of furniture, 
with a few torn mats, an exceedingly dirty 
pillow, a dozen earthen pots, and a single box, 
usually with a broken lid, for holding the 
clothes of the family; but it will not leave 
them there. In the com in g: of a generation the 


whole surroundings are changed: stools and 
chairs begin to appear; a rude table, simple 
bedsteads, the conveniences of life, with clean 
clothes and clean faces and hands; a book or 
two with always a Bible and a hymn book, 
differentiate the Christian present from the 
pagan past. 

When many of our prudent people ask why 
the very cheap rates for native pastors are 
steadily rising, so that where formerly a man 
in India or China could be secured for thirty 
dollars a year it is now necessary to pay fifty 
or sixty dollars, the true answer is not only 
that rates of living are somewhat higher than 
they have been, but that the man and his 
family are themselves higher in their tastes 
and more manifold in their needs than they 
have been. And this is a matter for sincere 
congratulation. The children now need school- 
ing; the family calls for books; dirty clothes 
are no longer acceptable; they cannot, there- 
fore, any longer sit on a mud floor. 

Life is steadily rising, and the person who 
understands the situation ought to much 
more cheerfully contribute the sixty dollars 
for the support of this humble family than he 
did the thirty dollars for that same family, 
when it had not risen so high in its actual ap- 
preciation of the true values of life. What is 


more, the change in the pastor and his home 
is not the least of llu^ powerful appeals 
silently made to the people among whom he 

There came to me when I was still a young 
surveyor in the service of the Indian govern- 
ment a delegation of humble Hindus. They 
had heard that, though I was a government 
official, I was teaching what they were pleased 
to call "the new religion." They told me they 
had come seventeen kos (about sixty miles), 
a long journey to an untraveled Indian, and 
with very deep earnestness they said: "We 
know the old gods are dying; the breath of 
the new God slays them before his presence; 
but, we have never had anyone in our part of 
the country who could really tell us about the 
new God and what he wants us to do. About 
one hundred miles to the east is a village that 
has accepted him, and our people sent us as 
a delegation to visit that village. Sir, we 
found wonderful things there. There was 
more prosperity there than with us : the very 
cattle were fatter, the harvest more plentiful, 
and the children were all at school; but, sir, 
the castes had all been mixed up and they 
were all low-caste men, for they ate together 
in their temples every month. Now, sir, when 
the new God comes to us — for come he will — 


and when the old gods are all dead, will we all 
become low^-caste men?" 

I was deeply moved. I saw the mingled ig- 
norance and sincerity, and I said to them: 
"Brothers, he whom yon call the new God is 
the eternal God. He is the Unchanging One. 
He always was, he is, he will always be. You 
say trnly that he will come into yonr village. 
He is there now, bnt you have not recognized 
him. When you recognize him you will find 
that the old gods are all dead, and your cattle 
will grow fatter, and your fields will be 
richer, and your children will all be at school, 
not because God will make things different, 
but because, knowing him, you will become 
different yourselves, and you will not become 
low-caste men, but all your village, whatever 
the caste, will be uplifted and become high- 
caste men; for those who know the true God 
are all that kind of men." 

With a lowly salaam the men bowed them- 
selves out, saying, "It is all very wonderful." 

As I have already said, with this assertion 
of the self against untoward things will come 
also assertion against unjust persons or 

Christ breeds insurgency, whether in Persia 
or Peking. Wherever the established order or 
the conduct of affairs runs against his aroused 


sense of the right aud the becominjij, the Chris- 
tian will conscientiously protest; and if there 
is anything established injustice dislikes, it 
is "conscientious protest/^ for that can neither 
be stilled nor bought off until wrong is made 
right. This it is that leads to so much irrita- 
tion against missions and missionaries, and to 
such persecution of native Christians in many 
places. When in China the Christians refuse 
to subscribe to make feasts and carry offerings 
to the local shrine, there is difficulty. When 
in India the Christian pariah insists on get- 
ting water from the Tillage well (and not 
meekly consent to go a mile for stagnant 
water) , again there is difficulty. 

This is the secret of the complaint against 
Christians at the ports of Asia : "You mission- 
aries spoil the natives." They do spoil them 
for being kicked about, for a man who has 
found himself will not allow his person to be 
treated with indignity. They do spoil them 
for being treated as the dirt under the feet of 
the imperious and, too often, impertinent 
white foreigner. Spoilerf — yes, for cruelly 
low wages, and for being counted out as a hu- 
man being with social rights, and even social 
and economic aspirations. 

This insurgency of spirit against established 
wrong brings the young Christian church also 


into conflict with governmental powers, which 
array themselves against the teachings of the 
gospel; and the impossibility of submission to 
such unrighteous rule involves the young 
church in sore difficulty. Take the case of any 
Moslem land. According to Mohammedan- 
ism, wherever a Moslem government obtains, 
a profession of Islam means "submission" not 
merely to God but to the state; the Sultan of 
Turkey is also Kaliph, and so with the Ameer 
of Afghanistan and the Shah of Persia; each 
is head of church and state. Renouncing the 
state religion is therefore a crime against the 
state, and here the missionary's position is 
most difficult. His is the dilemma of earnest 
endeavor, on the one hand, to illuminate the 
mind and save the soul, and of great anxiety, 
on the other hand, to avoid endangering the 
liberty and life of the convert and open colli- 
sion with the government. When, years ago, a 
Russian minister pointed out to the Sultan 
of Turkey a map of the Turkish empire dotted 
with red spots marking American mission 
schools, and said, "These are all points of in- 
fection in which future difficulties are breed- 
ing," he probably told the truth; and if there 
be a New Turkey; and if a New Persia, in 
spite of the throttling of unfriendly powers, 
begins to move in its cradle; and if the whole 


nearer East shows signs of a new day in the 
midst of its ceaseless stress of faction and 
strife, the Protestant (and I think I may add 
the American) missionary is largely the 
source of hope and possible progress. 

P>ut if in the period of troublous transition 
the presence and influence of the missionary 
be a disputed good, giving "peace at any 
price'' men grounds for bitter attack upon 
him as a breeder of trouble, speaking in 
altered phrase the old accusation, "These 
that have turned the world upside down are 
come hither also," while those who trust the 
outcomes of the ferment of spiritual ideas are 
yet obliged to trust in the dark, still, when 
there has been time enough for the leaven to 
work and for the scattered individual Chris- 
tians to affect the minds of their neighbors, 
and by better living and saner thinking to 
create a new^ public sentiment, then great 
movements are set on foot and great results 
register themselves. 

How marvelously does the recent history of 
China illustrate my statements! Only a little 
time ago the missionarj^ was the object of ques- 
tion and contention in the homelands, and the 
subject of suspicion and anything but cordial 
good will among the rulers of China. In- 
dividual men and women who had achieved 


special errands of helpfulness to Chinese man- 
darins, viceroys, and others were from time 
to time favorably named ; but, on the whole, it 
were foolish to deny that Lord Salisbury's 
sneer that "the entrance of a missionary was 
a prelude to the smoke of a gunboat on the 
horizon'' Avas cutting but largely true, and 
for the reasons I have already sketched. The 
missionary represented ideas and principles 
which were essentially subversive of a govern- 
ment founded on other ideas than the help and 
progress of the governed. He was embar- 
rassed too by the racial and national affiliation 
with lands and powers who were constantly ag- 
gressive against what China deemed her rights. 
Britain bore the odium of the opium traffic — 
the "foreign smoke," as China calls it — and 
those from America the burden of the ill will 
caused by the bitter anti-Chinese legislation 
and feeling of the Pacific Coast. Meanwhile 
the power of gospel principles and the strange 
stir of spirit that Jesus causes everywhere was 
building little groups of humble Chinese Chris- 
tians everywhere; and everywhere the leaven 
of Christly good will, which the missionaries 
bore in their hearts and in their hospitals and 
schools and preaching, was working silently. 
The kingdom of God cometh not with obsers^a- 
tion. Then came the Boxer rebellion. Chris- 


tianity and all foreign teachings anil influ- 
ences were to be stamped out ruthlessly. In 
a few weeks thirty thousand Christians were 
killed. "Away with him! Crucify him!'' all 
China crie<l. 

But a strange thing happened. Men, women, 
and children, with as keen love of life as any, 
when face to face with the choice between 
apostasy and death, chose death. There en- 
tered into the very soul of China a strange 
fear mingled with admiration of the power of 
the Christians' God. They had never seen it in 
this fashion before; and the result is that, in 
the few years since the Boxer rebellion, the 
broken ranks of the Christians have been 
rallied and reformed and the Christian 
churches have been more than refilled, and 
the number of baptisms in evangelical Chris- 
tianity since the Boxer rebellion is twice as 
large as in the whole century before. Through 
all these later years the hearts of the people 
have turned more than ever to the missionary, 
and, as in India after the Mutiny there was a 
great strengthening of Christian foundations 
and a great step forward in Christian undc^r- 
takings, so also has there been, and more 
markedly, a similar advance in China. 

Following this, as the Christian message 
found its way more widely to the hearts of 


men, and as larger numbers of students re- 
turned from Western lands, where thej had 
been in contact with Christian governmental 
ideas, that insurgency which is the inevitable 
by-product of Christianity began to move, then 
boil and bubble ; and, to the amazement of the 
whole civilized world, while we were all rub- 
bing our eyes, and while Europe said, "It can- 
not be," and America asked, "Can it be?" 
aroused China went to work and it was, and, 
in spite of misgivings and questions and 
threats, it is — and China is a republic ! And 
note this : among the forces that produced the 
revolution none has been more in evidence 
than the native Christian Church. The mis- 
sionaries as individuals, with a fine self- 
restraint, have kept out of it all ; indeed, some 
of them, who saw what sincere efforts the 
prince regent was making to cleanse the public 
life, and doubting whether China was ready 
for so drastic a change as to a "Republic," 
favored a continuance of the Manchu rule. 
But the Christians are now recognized as 
among the most sane and forceful leaders of 
the new day. 

It need only be stated that the man who ha/d 
most to do with instigating and organizing the 
revolution, and who was himself appointed the 
first provisional president of the new Repub- 


lie, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, is himself a Christian. 
He was baptized when a lad by Dr. Hagar, of 
the American Board, and later, as a medical 
student, became the close friend of Dr. 
Cant lie, who, through all the years of his per- 
secution by the Manchus, remained his firm 
and faithful counselor and helper. When, a 
few months ago. Dr. Sun Yat Sen visited Pe- 
king to confer with President Yuan Shi-Kai, 
regarding that immense railroad scheme he 
had in contemplation, expecting to build two 
hundred thousand li of Chinese railroads at 
an estimated cost of six billions of dollars (if 
there was any man in China Avho could carry 
out this program, it was he), a reception was 
tendered the distinguished visitor by the 
Christians of Peking. Vast throngs gathered ; 
the streets were packed not only with Chris- 
tians but with those who came to see the 
Christians receive this famous man. Speeches 
were made in which flattering allusions Avere 
made to the part that the doctor had taken in 
engineering the revolution and bringing it to 
successful issue. In reply he said he would 
not deny that he had much to do with the 
revolution, particularly in its inception. 
"But," he added, "where did I get my ideas 
and the foundations of my strong purposes?" 
Then, turning to the assembled missionaries 


and pointing toward them, he added, "It was 
from the missionaries I got my ideas of lib- 
erty and of the sacrificial life which should 
be ready to spend itself for the good of its 
fellows." Little did Hagar and Cantlie know 
when they poured themselves into the bright 
Chinese lad, w^ho was one of many with 
whom they had to do, what great sequels 
would follow their faithful efforts. 

I was myself, February a year ago, in Foo- 
chow and was one of a large company of mis- 
sionaries invited to meet the Governor of the 
province and his Cabinet and other influential 
citizens. Foochow had early declared itself a 
republic. The Manchu soldiers had been 
driven off and the resident Manchu people had 
accepted the new republican order and were 
living peaceful and unmolested in the city. 
At the reception the chairman, a member of 
the Cabinet, was an old retired Methodist 
preacher, who held the portfolio of Commerce, 
Telegraphs, and Posts. About him were seated 
the other members of the Cabinet, the Gov- 
ernor, and a distinguished body of Chinese 
merchants. During the function, when several 
speeches had been made, the Governor arose 
and said, among other things, that before the 
revolution he was aware of the presence of 
missionaries and knew that some Chinese had 


become (Miristiaiis; but he was a soldier and 
the whole matter held little interest for him, 
and, if he had an}- thought about it at all, it 
was to experience a feeling of something ])e- 
tween pity and disgust for any of his country- 
men who had given themselves over to foreign 
teachings and foreign ways. "But/- said Gen- 
eral Song, "when the revolution broke out T 
was surprised to find that there were none so 
ardent, so intelligent, and so self-sacrificing 
as the Christians.'' Said he : "In Foochow the 
Christians were the mainspring of the revolu- 
tion, and now it would be difficult to main- 
tain order in this province if it were not for 
the hearty cooperation of the small bodies 
of Christians, who serve the province with an 
intelligence and zeal that is altogether praise- 

When, a little later, the chairman arose he 
spoke with deep feeling, saying: "For fifty 
years I have borne the reproach of being a 
Christian. I knew that what my chief has 
just said was true; that the true Christians 
were thought to be unpatriotic; but all the 
time I knew that my heart was full of a devo- 
tion to ray country which was only next to mv 
devotion to God. ^\T heart rejoices, on behalf 
of myself and all my fellow Christians, to hear 
the Governor." And then, something of true 


passion seizing the old Methodist preacher, he 
added, solemnly bowing his head to the Gov- 
ernor: ''O my chief, and you, Mr. Pang, the 
head of the Cabinet, since you have seen what 
Jesus Christ has done for some of your humble 
countrymen and through them for the land it- 
self, may I not hope that you, also, will soon 
give yourselves to Jesus Christ and learn the 
Christian doctrine? And then," he added, "you 
Avill find out the full worth of these men, the 
missionaries." I looked around me and I saw 
upon the faces of several of the oldest mission- 
aries grateful tears they did not think to brush 
away. It was a moment of high emotion in all 
that vast assemblage. Such hours as these, 
which I have described, whether in Peking or 
in Foochow, or anywhere else in all that broad 
land, have behind them and as the real ex- 
planation for them the missionary. He is 
God's messenger, bearing vital truths to the 
peoples. He is God's herald, pointing the na- 
tions to the new day that everywhere is at 

Young people I life opens to earnest men and 
women many careers of great usefulness, for 
the whole world needs the service of capable 
and unselfish men in all the avenues of life. 
But nowhere, among all the alluring paths 
that open, will you ever set your feet on any 


road that leads to nobler service nor to the pos- 
jsibility of farther reaching' and more profound 
results than does that which leads to a foreign 
mission field. You may seem to be dead to 
the social pleasures, the mental attritions and 
stirring ambitions of your own community and 
people; but it is a burial that will find its resur- 
rection in the uplift, the widened horizons, the 
new life of great areas of depressed humanity. 
And where can seeming sacrifice of self bring 
nobler or more enduring reward? 






In discussing the message the missionary 
attempts to bear to the various peoples of this 
world, attention must be called to certain pro- 
found changes that have occurred in our own 
conceptions of what is vital and essential in 
our own faith, and a new sense of values we 
discover and gladly admit in the other re- 
ligions of the world. 

The generation before this one held gen- 
erally to the verbal inspiration of the Scrip- 
tures — every dot of an "i'' and every cross of 
a "t'' was under the direct and infallible gui- 
dance of the Holy Spirit. It is true there was 
a human agency, but this was a passive instru- 
ment rather than an "agency." Like a flute 
that was blown upon, it could produce only at 
the will of the performer. There was there- 
fore a hard and unbending attitude both in the 
interpretation and setting forth of the Chris- 
tian faith, and all scriptural statements were, 
of course, of equal value. 

Many of the older missionaries always dis- 
counted this mechanical method, but new ar- 
rivals coming from a church which held such 


views continuallj reinforced tlie position. 
Now there is much cliange. A larger and 
more generous view of religion and its great 
mountain peaks is brought into sight, 
and while God's sublime majesty and his 
sacrificial love in Jesus Christ are exalted 
as truly and more lovingly than ever, minor 
matters are left to the later development of 
the young church in most Christian lands. 
This process has been gradually going on, and 
it would be impossible to say when it began or 
how far it has proceeded. 

With rigid ideas of verbal inspiration of the 
Christian Scriptures w^ent a flat denial of any 
values whatever in the other religions. In 
this earlier thinking paganism was all bad; 
the ethnic faiths were all born of the devil, and 
their leaders were vilified as either impostors 
or wretchedly mistaken men. Buddha was 
an atheist, Confucius a barren and reaction- 
ary moralist, and Mohammed a false prophet 
and his religion of the devil. The modem 
study of religions in comparative ways has 
made this no longer possible, and w^hile the 
modern missionary is true to Christ, he is 
eager to see the truth in each of the religions 
he approaches, and to welcome it, for he recog- 
nizes that a grain of truth unacknowledged 
will make a mountain of division between him 


aud those whom he approaches; besides he re- 
joices to recognize the presence of trntli wher- 
ever he finds it — while never failing to empha- 
size the necessity of C'hrist as fulflller of the 
partial revelation of the mind of God which 
all the systems hold. 

These two trends have very greatly modified 
both the message and the method of its put- 
ting. The missionary finds it necessary on 
approaching a people to learn their beliefs, and 
the customs and manners behind which these 
beliefs are intrenched, to sympathetically 
valuate their possessions, use their existing 
knowledge as the road by which to travel to 
their understanding and to their confidence, 
and from the points of contact to move into 
those areas of belief where he encounters 
either ignorance or opposition. It will be 
found on investigation that there is no people 
without some religion, and no religion without 
some effect on life and conduct; and however 
undeveloped any people may be, there is none 
without some dim idea of the existence of spir- 
itual powers greater than themselves, to whom 
they are related in some strange way, and 
whom they desire more or less earnestly to 
please and placate. Years ago an English 
clergyman (was it Canon Kingsley?) de- 
scribed the bushmen of Australia as men with- 


out any religious beliefs or rites, or any ideas 
of a world of spirits. But later, when John 
Paton, of the Hebrides, spent some time among 
these people, he approached them with greater 
sympathy and knowledge of the pagan mind 
because of his New Hebrides experience, and 
discovered that these people had secreted upon 
their persons the fetishes they tremblingly 
worshiped, and learned that the reason for 
their extreme reticence was their fear of being 
laughed at by the white man. These animistic 
peoples, wherever found, are in bondage to 
soul-possessing and harrowing fear. Often 
overlaid by later faiths, this primitive belief 
holds millions of people in abject spiritual 
terror. Believing, as they do, that everything 
has a soul, and with a very vague idea of a 
great over-soul, life is full of fears lest the 
wrath of these spirits may be unwittingly in- 

There are millions of people in Africa, in 
India, among the Malays, and in China and 
Japan, many of whom are called Hindus or 
Buddhists, or even Moslems, who spend their 
lives in terror of evil spirits that maliciously 
seek to harm all those who invade the rigid 
etiquette of the spirit realm. What message 
shall the missionary speak to these poor, fear- 
ridden multitudes, to whom life is one long 


menace? Surely it Avould not be right to de- 
ride their fears. Surely the method of ap- 
proach to even these lowliest of the family 
must be with sympathetic understanding of 
their fears, and glad recognition of the value 
of a belief in that mysterious spirit world that 
encompasses us all. Even with their perverted 
ideas of the hateful influences of the denizens 
of this spirit world, are they not nearer essen- 
tial truth than those highly educated mate- 
rialists who, even more superstitiously bowing 
before their own great intellects, have ruled 
God and all spiritual existence out of the uni- 
verse? It would seem to one who has spent 
many years among lowly animistic peoples that 
much wrong education brings men to a lower 
level of religious aptitude and receptivity than 
that possessed by a fearful devil worshiper. I 
would rather take my chances of religious de- 
velopment as a Hottentot, timidly approach- 
ing a bush covered with red rags, the votive 
offerings to the spirit-being in the bush, than 
as a highly intellectual man, in whom faith 
has atrophied, or a religiously contemptuous 
agnostic who belittles beliefs he has not lent 
himself to sympathetically examine. Living 
among such animistic peoples the missionary 
wins their confidence and love. They perceive 
he has knowledge of many tilings that are 


useful in life, and that he is persistently kind 
and solicitous for their welfare. What shall be 
his distinctive religious message? Shall it not 
be first and always foremost the being and 
presence of a great God who is Lord of all 
spirits, and that this God is our Father and 
Friend? These people are constantly balanc- 
ing the power of one spirit over against an- 
other. Accustomed to tribal ideas and clan 
fights, they unconsciously project these same 
divisions into the spirit realms. What mental 
relief it is, to begin with, to be persuaded that 
there is some one authoritative personal 
center to all this terrifying diversity of be- 
ings, and when the messenger goes on to say 
that it is possible to reach the ear and heart 
of this great Over-Lord, who is filled with 
thoughts of kindness toward his humble wor- 
shipers, a new, uplifting, consoling, and won- 
derfully stimulating conception is conveyed 
to these darkened minds. Warneck, of Ger- 
many, whose long familiarity with the Battaks 
of Sumatra and the other animistic peoples of 
Malaysia and Africa gives him authority to 
speak, says: "The message of a living God in 
contrast to the animistic deities who live a 
self-centered life'' — each in his own heaven — 
"strikes the heathen's heart. It is thought a 
sweet message that God does not live in un- 


approachable retirement, but is a loving and 
acting One, dealing Avith men, blessing and 
punishing them. His omnipotence, proved 
throughout in the face of human distress and 
demoniac power, wins the heathen's heart and 
invites him to try this great and good God's 
help. Soon he will tr^^ to come in contact with 
God through prayer, and then will rejoice 
childlike when he finds himself heard. Such 
experience overthrows supersition and fear. 
This immediate natural relation to the Al- 
mighty, personal God is one of the loveliest 
experiences observed in animistic heathen, and 
is not uncommon.'' With this assertion of a 
great and good Go<l, Lord of all spirits and 
full of good will to humble, suppliant men, 
w^hat a joyful message is that of the Redeemer 
w^hom he sent to deliver us from all our ene- 
mies I And if at first the New Testament tales 
of Jesus that particularly attract them are 
those which tell of his casting out devils and 
rebuking evil spirits, what of it? Must w^e 
not begin Avith people Avhere they live? Later 
they will rise to the higher conceptions of 
Jesus as the empowerer for all goodness, and 
of that Holy Spirit who leads into all truth 
and intones the soul for the accomplishment 
of all virtue. Many a poor devil-dancer of In- 
dia and many a terrified worshiper of feathers 


and marrow bones in Africa has come out of 
his quaking superstitious dread to Christ as 
a deliverer sent by the great God to save him 
from the power of lesser tormenting evil ones, 
and has then advanced by leaps and bounds 
into the deeper spiritual knowledge of the 
things of God; and sometimes in a few brief 
years these least of the children of the king- 
dom amaze the missionaries themselves, so 
deep becomes their insight and experience of 
the grace of God. 

I submit a very notable illustration in my 
experience. At the mission house in Madras, 
where Miss Grace Stephens is the honored and 
loved leader of a successful band of mission- 
aries, I was told the following weird and re- 
markable tale: Among the women who had 
fled to this mission house when no longer able 
to bear the terrible persecutions of their own 
pagan homes was Lingama, a singularly 
beautiful and gracious young woman. She 
was continually pursued by her husband, who 
would call her by name from the adjoining 
street for hours at a time, particularly at 
niffht. Finallv he announced that he would 
employ the arts of sorcery. And Lingama, 
profoundly affected, began to behave most 
strangely. She grew morbid, then violent, and 
flew into wild fits of rage at every mention of 


('hrist and his teachings. She assaulted all 
who came near her with the words of religion 
on their lips, and yet positively refused to 
leave the mission house or return to her hus- 
band. Miss Stephens, who loved her as a 
daughter, was both gTieved and perplexed. 
Finally, after a particularly violent outbreak, 
Miss Stephens approached her and, speaking 
with intense earnestness, said, "Evil spirit, in 
the name of Jesus Christ I command you to 
come out of this woman,'' whereupon, with a 
great cry, Lingama threw herself on the 
ground in w^hat looked like a convulsive 
fit. She then lay motionless, and was ten- 
derly put to bed. When, many hours 
after, she awoke, she seemed confused but 
gentle, and inquired where she was and 
what had happened. The notable thing, how- 
ever, is this. From the hour of her awak- 
ening she has made great progress in un- 
derstanding the deep things of God and in 
depth and loveliness of Christian life. What- 
ever may be the interpretation of the facts I 
state — and all the parties to this story are yet 
alive — I state them to show that from the 
weakest and least of these born into Christ's 
kingdom from the gToss darkness of heathen- 
ism are often developed the saintliest of lives. 
Turn from these crudest of the pagan world 


to such a people a.s the Hindus of ludia. By 
this term I do not mean to include the fifty 
millions or more who are outcastes, or pariahs, 
and not really Hindu at all. They are really 
animists with some small veneer of Hindu 
ways, though practically outside of the Hindu 
faith both in knowledge and in inner grip of 
the system upon the affections. And yet it 
is easier in India to tell Avho are not Hindus 
than to define what Hindus are or what Hin- 
duism teaches, for Hinduism is a term that 
covers all manner of divergent beliefs and in- 
cludes contradictory philosophies. The Hin- 
dus themselves, despairing of definitions, and, 
indeed, not specially caring for them, are ac- 
customed to sa}^ that if one "will observe the 
caste rules and feed the Brahmans, he is a 
good Hindu." Two notes, however, are prac- 
tically universal amid all the divergencies of 
Hindu belief, and those are a thorough-going 
pantheism and a belief in Karma, or the 
unescapable fruitage of the moral outcome 
of each life. In actual religious conduct, 
asceticism is highly valued for its moral 
results, though one must remember that 
the word "moral" has a very different con- 
tent in the Hindu mind, and that there is 
always a party in dissent from any character- 
ization of any belief held by the mass of Hin- 


dus. One other matter should be noted — that 
whatever may be the particular creed of any 
class or set of Hindus, they all share the 
deeply fervent religious nature. AVith the 
Hindu religion is a passion. There is no peo- 
ple on earth with whom religion bulks so large. 
The Hindu lives surrounded by the gods. They 
people tlie hills and the trees, the rivers and 
the forests ; they fill the shrines and ride upon 
the storm-clouds ; they are borne upon the sun- 
beams; they are bosomed in the moonlight; 
they fill the earth and air and sky. AA'aking 
and sleeping, at his oblations and at his nieal^^, 
at home, in the bazaar, on the road, slowly 
moving afoot or on board his little boat float- 
ing down the river — everywhere and at all 
times the devout Hindu moves in the presence 
of the gods. What shall be the message of the 
missionary' to this highly cultivated, mystic- 
minded, deep-souled, sensitive, and almost re- 
ligiously obsessed man? Here it is plain that 
it behooves the gospel messenger to first fa- 
miliarize himself with the land and the people, 
and to learn the strength of the system and 
the tremendous hold of the beliefs which, in 
measure, oppose themselves to his essential 

The situation calls for much more intimate 
knowledge and delicate consideration than it 


has yet received. Unpardonable rudeness has 
too often in the past characterized the young 
missionaries, who unwittingly have given great 
offense by their unconscious assumption of a 
fine superiority, which, resented by a proud 
and sensitive race, has not helped the Chris- 
tian movement. Matters are improving, but 
enough remains to be done to warrant my 
speaking this special word of warning to young 
missionary candidates. A race that has pro- 
duced a Mozamdar, a Kali Churn Bannerjca, 
a Gokhale, and an Azariah, a Chitamber and 
ten thousand others, is worthy our highest re- 
spect and distinguished consideration. The 
missionary will therefore approach his high 
task with a deep respect for the people, and 
learning the weakness and strength of their 
religious positions, will, above all, when he 
finds the pathetic moral and social conditions 
of the masses of the people, yearn over them 
with a deep compassion. And here, too, he will 
find that three outstanding features of the 
Christian gospel will attract immediate atten- 
tion and exercise tremendous influence upon 
the devout mind of the people. The first of 
these features is the Fatherhood of God. The 
Hindu has a great capacity for appreciating 
love. I have found him exceedingly tender of 
heart. And when one learns of the organized 


cruelties of the religions of India one can only 
sigh over the betrayal of a deep-hearted people 
by evil practices that have grown up among 
them, largely fostered by a designing priest- 
hood. And although a pantheistic philosophy 
has no room for a personal Father God, the 
Hindu heart cannot but feel its orphanhood 
and is somehow deeply moved by the presenta- 
tion of the all-embracing love of God our 

Secondly, the character and life of Jesus 
are eminently persuasive to the Hindu. His 
own system has bred great sages of deep devo- 
tion and asceticism of life. When, therefore, 
the pure and sacrificial life of Jesus grows 
upon his thought, it captures his imagination. 
Admiration, and love, and personal surrender 
to his claims is often the result. The lowli- 
ness, the self-abnegation, the poverty, the 
meekness of demeanor, the wealth of over- 
flowing pity toward the suffering, the Oriental 
habits of life, and the marvelous words that 
fell from his lips, but, above all, the majestic 
dignity with which Jesus bore all indignities, 
even to the death on the cross, profoundly 
affect the Hindu mind and command deep 
attention and regard. 

Nearly half a century ago Baba Keshub 
Chunder Sen, in a grreat lecture in ralciitta 


on the subject, ''What India Thinks of Christ,-' 
frankly and freely admitted that Christ had 
already taken the mind of India captive. And 
while the Brahmo cult which he led has at- 
tempted to create an eclectic system in which 
there shall be room for Buddha and Zoroaster, 
Mohammed and Chaitanya, as well as Christ 
himself, nevertheless, as the years roll on, 
even Brahmoism sees Christ rise to alti- 
tudes in its thought and worship to which the 
others do not reach, and many and many a 
devout Hindu mind, contemplating Jesus in 
religious devotion, has finally been forced to 
cry out, ''My Lord and my God!'' 

With the masses of the plain people a third 
most attractive message is the promise of an 
eternity of rest and blessedness. The preva- 
lence of belief in Karma has bred a certain 
oppression of spirit when contemplating the 
future — ceaseless movement without assured 
progress, millions of experiences leading to no 
certain whither. All this is a heavy burden 
on the spirit, the only relief from Avhich is 
some far-off absorption in Brahma — "There 
the wicked cease from troubling, and there the 
weary are at rest." This is heaven not as the 
West conceives heaven, however — the desire 
for heightened activity. Perhaps God Avill 
ffive the redeemed Hindu a millennium or two 


of just the pure uuuiarred bliss of contempla- 

To such approaches of truth and sympa- 
thetic help and friendliness conveyed by the 
words and the life of the missionary the old 
historic faith of India is responding in two 
ways: (1) by the movement of considerable 
numbers from Hinduism into the Christian 
Church, and (2) yet more markedly by the 
recasting of Hindu thought under the words 
of the old religion, which are receiving entirely 
new contents and are being interpreted with 
nobler meanings and wider horizons than had 
ever before entered the minds of saints and 
sages. Thus does the gospel vivify everything 
that it touches, bringing all thought into cap- 
tivity to the mind of Christ. So that even th(* 
polluted gods of India are being moralized, and 
philosophic pantheism is being scanned to find 
a base for moral constraint in the conduct of 

In considering the message to the Chinese, 
we touch a people who, though they too are 
of Asia, may be said to be antipodal to the 
Hindu in mental characteristics and outlook 
upon life. If the Hindu is almost too other- 
worldly, his gaze so upon the skies that his 
feet are not always firm upon the earth, the 
Chinaman is ultra-practical and perhaps too 


closely devoted to the things of earth, and not 
sufficiently alive and alert to the mystic 
spiritual by Avhich we are surrounded. When 
Confucius was asked about offerings to the 
gods he answered, "We know but little of men, 
why trouble about the gods?'' And again he 
is reported to have said, "Kevere the gods, but 
at a distance." On the other hand, he was a 
wonderful moralist, and the ethical code he 
left behind him is the purest and most exalted 
to be found anywhere outside of the New 
Testament. The Chinese are, therefore, a 
people to whom the appeal for righteousness 
of conduct in all our earthly relations finds 
immediate and sincere response. There is no 
other non-Christian area in which such a 
degree of moral knowledge is to be found in 
the public mind, nor such ready and heartfelt 
agreement with all homilies on correctness of 
conduct. The Chinese mind too is exceedingly 
hospitable to all manner of religious ideas. 
Christianity found China holding three faiths 
— Confucianism, Buddhism, and Tauism — all 
at one time. A frequent Chinese reply when 
asked concerning his faith is, "I belong to the 
three religions," and Christianity would easily 
find its way to wide acceptance were it not 
insistent upon the exclusion of all that does 
not agree with its genius and principles. In 


fact, the Cliinanuiii lias lield lightly all his 
religions as such, lie ])T()f(>iiiKlly venerates 
Confucius as a sage, and worships the shades 
of his ancestors, and in this veneration of the 
ancestral tablets, indistinguishable from wor- 
ship, is found perhaps the deepest religious 
feeling of the Chinese people. 

How shall the Christian message best be 
presented to such a people? It is found that 
two aspects of the Christian teaching are at- 
tractive to the Chin(»se mind. First, the pre- 
sentation of the great and mighty God as the 
Father of all the family on earth. The Chinese 
have been accustomed to think in terms of the 
family rather than the individual, and the 
father holds the position of reverence and 
filial regard beyond anything known in West- 
ern lands. The father is at once the autocrat 
and the revered center of all family life and 
interest. When, therefore, in place of the 
dim, shadowy being he has been worshiping, 
Shangti, there is presented the living God, the 
Father of all men, infinitely concerned for all 
and bowing in divine concern and compassion 
over each, the impression made is exceedingly 

Another attractive doctrine of Christianity 
is that of Jesus, the Christ. The pure and 
spotless life of Jesus, the high and exalted 


teachings of his words, the radiant purity of 
his life, and the teaching that he is not only 
the exemplar but the enabler of men, holds 
Chinese attention when once secured. The 
high ethical teaching of Confucius, while it 
has not wrought in all the people a sense of 
their shortcoming, because he ceaselessly ac- 
companied it with further statements of man's 
sufficiency unto himself, neyertheless has 
established a moral ideal, and does stir to 
moral endeavor. When, therefore, the pure 
character and life of Jesus are presented to 
the Chinese, they evince a lively interest, and 
when this is accompanied by the teaching that 
Christ came not merely as an exemplar to hu- 
manity but to morally energize us through the 
inner operation of the Holy Spirit, that we too 
may come to purity of life and loftiness of 
conduct, many of the best minds of China are 
greatly attracted to the teaching. 

There is still a larger class of the common 
people who are burdened with the supersti- 
tions of Tauism and live in terror of evil 
spirits. The animistic beliefs of an earlier 
day are merely tinged with the later systems 
of religion. To these the presentation of 
Christ as deliverer from the powers of evil is 
exceedingly attractive. I have seen consider- 
able companies of Chinese rickshaw coolies in 


Singapore listen absorbedlj as I talked of 
Christ as the source and center of all the 
good of life, and insisted that no evil spirits 
nor vicious powers of any kind were able to 
invade the sanctity of a life that was surren- 
dered to him. 

And, further, it may be said that the Chinese 
mind, much less speculative and subtly philo- 
sophic than the Hindu, is more attracted by 
the positive benefits of the Christian religion. 
Its schools and hospitals, its deeds of mercy 
and kindly words of sympathy are its great 
apologetic. And if the future church of 
India will be marked by its mystic temper 
and passionate devotion to the person of 
Christ, the Chinese Church will probably 
be less fervent but more orderly, practical, 
and businesslike. Each will markedly need 
the other for a richer interpretation of the 
whole gospel. 

When we come to the Mohammedan faith 
we come to one that is more like Christianity 
in outer form, and perhaps more opposed to 
Christianity in spirit and temper than any. 
The chief doctrine of Islam is the absolute 
sovereignty of the great God. To his sovereign 
will there can be but one attitude of the 
devout human heart. Islam — "submission'' — 
describes that attitude. But if the sovereign 


God be exalted and his uiKiiiestioned Avill be 
the law of the universe and the ruk^ of life, the 
Koran is the book which reveals that will, and 
orthodox Mohammedanism holds Avith rigid 
precision the literal and plenary inspiration of 
the Koran. This Koran is partly built upon 
the Old and New Testaments of the Jew and 
the Christian, but, coming later in time, it 
is an ampler revelation, and supersedes all 
that went before. Indeed, this matter of 
chronology holds so large a place in the ortho- 
dox Moslem mind that in the interpretation 
of the Koran itself the commentators seek to 
settle the relative time sequence of the dis- 
puted passages with the assumption that the 
later always supersedes the earlier. And as 
the Koran supersedes the "Torah" and the 
"Injil,'' and, in general, the entire Old and 
New Testaments, so Mohammed supersedes 
Moses and Jesus. These also were true 
prophets. Indeed, Jesus is described as the 
"sinless prophet," a term never applied to 
Mohammed, but Mohammed is the "Seal of the 
Prophets," the one in whom the prophetic 
ascent culminates — ^^the last, the greatest, the 
only authoritative prophet of God. Therefore 
it is the Muezzin cries from the minaret 
of every Moslem mosque, "Allah-il-Allah — 
Akhbar-Allahu — Mohammed rasoul Allah" — 


"God is God — Great is God — and Mohammed 
is His prophet.-' 

Certain outstamliug defects in Mohammed 
himself, partly personal and partly of inheri- 
tance and environment, have greatly colored 
and vitiated his compilation of material for 
the Koran, and have fastened themselves upon 
the faith which he formulated. Chief of these 
is the fatalism induced by a belief in the fore- 
ordination of God, whose will concerning the 
events of all lives is absolute. This will, writ- 
ten on the preserved tablets which are round 
about his throne, has fixed the minutest de- 
tails of all lives. This has given Mohamme- 
danism a certain reposeful dignity under 
severest affliction — "It is the will of God." 
But with this dignity come lethargy and stag- 
nation and practical incapacity for progress. 
The counterbalancing belief in "human free- 
dom,'' which has saved Western civilization 
from being a blight upon human activity, is 
not found in orthodox Islam. 

Two other marks Islam bears, the direct 
product of Mohammed's own weakness and 
imperfection — a militant spirit against other 
religions and a low estimate of woman. The 
Moslem is a "soldier of God," and there is 
nothing figurative about his militancy. "On- 
ward, Moslem soldiers," as a Moslem hymn 


would refer to no war against sin and moral 
weakness ; it could only mean an actual physi- 
cal assault upon the enemies of the Prophet. 
And he who is so happy as to die upon the field 
of battle warring against the enemies of the 
faith is assured of an abundant entrance into 
the paradise of God, where seventy-two houris, 
with eyes like almonds and breath of roses, 
wait to comfort the brave hero who gave his 
life for his faith. Is it any wonder that the 
Moslem has always been a soldier? 

Mohammed himself was the husband of no 
less than thirteen wives, all of them save 
Khadija, the first and perhaps the noblest, 
taken by special revelation of God, some of 
them under conditions abhorrent even to the 
men of his day. But these cases were always 
covered by a special revelation, and when the 
Prophet of God spoke by inspiration, who 
could gainsay? All this leaves deep and sad 
results in the current life of Islam. A great 
brotherhood within its own borders, Islam 
is marked by a cynical disregard of the rights 
of all without the faith, against whom the edge 
of an exceedingly sharp religious sword is ever 
turned. I suppose it can justly be said that 
in a Moslem state perfect justice toward non- 
Moslems, when in collision with Moslems, is 
practically impossible. And no sadder woman- 


hood is to be found ou earth than the woman- 
hood of the mass of the families of Islam. 

And yet it must be remembered that Mo- 
hammedanism passionately holds the unity 
of God, and its conception of the might and 
majesty and the sublime dignity of Allah is 
most impressive; and it is, moreover, the 
greatest temperance society on earth. No true 
Moslem drinks wine or intoxicating liquors. 
What shall be the message spoken to such a 
faith — with its large religious values, its ag- 
gressive and arrogant militant spirit, and its 
defective morality? 

Here let me take time to say that even more 
markedly than under the circumstances notc^l 
in the case of all the other religions the C'hris- 
tian messenger to Islam needs to be a knowing 
and hospitable-hearted Christian gentleman. 
There is a certain grave dignity about t\\^ 
Mohammedan wherever you meet him which 
demands a fine courtesy of demeanor and self- 
repression in the man who goes to him with a 
great message that is not to his liking. Here, 
if anywhere, the manner and the manners of 
the herald must not prejudice the cause of the 
King. I have found among ^Moslems, whether 
Arabs, Chinese, Indians, or :\Ialays, an im- 
mediate appreciation of refined politeness. 
And the knowing missionary will have no diffi- 


cultj in finding many points of contact be- 
tween the two faiths, which he will greatly 
accent until interest is awakened and confi- 
dence is won. The Mohammedan when once 
awakened is an eager debater and places great 
store by dialectic victories. And I have seen 
more than once the chagrin of defeat in an 
argument turn into keen solicitude for the 
truth and to ultimate conviction of the claims 
of Christianity. Why this is I do not know, 
except, perhaps, because Mohammedanism 
breeds such inordinate self-sufficiency that the 
overthrow of its assumptions produces a cer- 
tain feeling of religious panic, and then a state 
of something approaching moral indignation 
against being misled, w^hich disposes the mind 
to inquiring after a possible substitute. I do 
not mean that this state of mind is easily in- 
duced, but I have witnessed it many times. 
The missionary to the Moslem should, there- 
fore, be a gentleman, with distinguished 
courtesy of manner and dignity of bearing, 
hospitable and kind of heart, and deeply know- 
ing the Moslem faith, its history, its legends 
and traditions. 

With such a messenger, what shall be the 
message? Unlike the other religions, this one 
calls for no assertion of the being and pres- 
ence of the one God. That trutli is alreadv 


tremendously aceenteil in Mohammedanism. I 
have met no missionary to the Moslems any- 
where who did not bear witness to the deep 
impression made upon the Moslem mind by 
the figure of Jesus Christ. Taught by the 
Koran itself to accept Jesus as "the spirit of 
God/' the Mohammedan is forced to approach 
the subject with a certain willingness to hear, 
if not a prepossession in favor of Jesus. Sir 
William Muir, Avho spent many years in India 
in contact with the ^lohammedans, of whom 
there are nearly seventy millions, has com- 
piled a book of nearly two hundred Koranic 
references to Jesus, in which Mohammed 
ascribes to him a perfection of life and con- 
duct he nowhere claims for himself. From 
this ground of agreement it is not impossible 
to lead the earnest Mohammedan to a con- 
templation of his kingly moral greatness and 
his towering spiritual attitude. 

I spoke one day with a high Moslem official, 
seated in his own library, in an Indian city, 
where he was not far removed from the head- 
ship of the government, and he said to me with 
deep solemnity, placing his hand upon a New 
Testament, "Sir, the ineffable dignity, the un- 
sullied purity of the character described in 
this book breathes of a purer heaven and a 
loftier paradise than any Islam foreshadows." 


^'Sir," said he a little later in the interview, "I 
admit that the spiritual elevation of the New 
Testament appeals to me strongly. Jesus 
surely bears the white flower of a blameless 
life, and moves me to an earnest striving after 
holiness." I was emboldened to declare that 
Jesus not only aroused in me the same inner 
desires but that he, by the Holy Spirit, 
breathed into me a living power to imitate 
him, and so delivered me from the thraldom 
of wrong appetite and passion. "O," said he, 
most earnestly, "would God I could find such 
power!" And, hesitantly, I asked whether I 
might pray with him. With beaming counte- 
nance he cried "God bless you, sir, for offering 
lO do so." After brief prayer I quietly made 
my adieus and left the room. I have never 
seen this gentleman since, but I cannot but 
devoutly hope that the Koranic prophet has 
grown into the actual personal Saviour and 
Lord of his heart and life. 

I do not hesitate to say that it is this inner 
longing for holiness awakened by close con- 
tact with the missionary who upholds the 
ideals incarnated in Christ that is the most 
winning note in Christianity among Moslems 
of the better sort. The theological difficulties 
of the Trinity and of the divine Sonship of 
Jesus can well be left in all Moslem lands and 


peoples to be settled later, after the mau is 
moved by conviction of sin and moral failure, 
and fumbles in seeking the way of escape. 
And, indecHl, if in contact with Mohammedan- 
ism the church is forced to subordinate its 
statements of doctrine and to place the chief 
accents upon spiritual experience, the final 
result may be not an emasculating of the faith 
by suppression of its dogmatic utterances, but 
a new working out of its formal statements in 
company with those who, trained in other 
thoughts, approach these matters from widely 
differing standpoints. We may then hope for 
such an approach to a universal creed of 
Christendom as cannot now be had, in the 
very nature of the case. 

With the Moslem, as Avith all others, if the 
messenger can convey such a message as will 
bring the orphaned spirit of man home to the 
Father God, and will teach that restored spirit 
of man to suffer itself in humble prayer and 
contemplation to be lifted into companionship 
with God, the great end of the messenger's 
forthgoing will be reached. But in order to 
reach this end the alienation of heart that 
comes from ignorance and sin must be lov- 
ingly indicated and the way into the light and 
life of God through Him who is the way, the 
truth, and the life must be patiently and cease- 


lessly pointed out. The end can be attained 
only by the human heart seeing itself in the 
light of God. When this light falls upon a 
man, be he philosophic Hindu or zealot Mo- 
hammedan, be he ignorant African or culti- 
vated Chinaman, he cries out for God, the 
living God, and in whatever darkness, or par- 
tial light of the intellect, the soul of the man 
seeks Him by whom the sinner finds his way 
home to God. In the end, before he reach his 
joyous consummation of help to men, wher- 
ever he may be, the missionary must, like Saint 
Paul, say, ^^I preach Christ and him crucified.'' 
And the whole history of missions is vocal 
with the testimony that the great, overpower- 
ing heart of Christian teaching, and its most 
formidable final truth for the breaking down 
of human opposition and the recreating of 
human lives, is the doctrine of the cross. 
Wherever the messenger may begin, his mes- 
sage is not (complete until he reaches the cen- 
tral heart of Christianity — a cross and One 
evidently set forth upon that cross a sacrifice 
for men. This seemingly dark mystery yet 
holds the divinest radiance. 

The ancient paradox is forever true — ^^Via 
cruciSy via lucis/^ and when one surveys the 
victories already won, the positions already 
established, the impact already registered out- 


sidi* lh(» boumlarios of the or<]:aniz(Ml Christian 
Church by this central revehition, tlie exulting 
soul of the Christian confidently predicts the 
ultimate world triuiu])h of the world's Re- 
deemer, and triumphantly he sin^s: 

"In the cross of Christ I glory, 

Towering o'er the wrecks of time; 
All the light of sacred story 

Gathers round its head sublime." 

But, whatever the variety of approach and 
of statement necessitated by the varying 
aspects and different levels of civilization to 
which the missionary goes, one factor of suc- 
cess is common to all lands, and that is the 
spirit and inner attitude of the missionary 
himself. It may seem unkind for one to say 
that there has not been a little failure here. 
The missionary has been and is so heroic and 
self-sacrificing a character that it is with great 
hesitation I venture the following observa- 

^Fen of the West are, as a whole, lacking in 
that fine courtesy upon which the East insists 
and without which approach to the East is 
made much more difficult. There is among us 
such ardent devotion to the idea of being driv- 
ing, pushing men, endeavoring to bring things 
to pass by sheer force of personality and drive 
of personal energy behind a practical capacity 


for organization, that we are almost inclined 
to think time spent in courteous manners is 
time lost. We become very conscious of this 
when, after long residence in the East, we 
return to this country. We are so busy and 
amid such a press of engagements that, as I 
heard a neighbor say, "We scarcely take time 
to be decent/^ But this is not all. We have 
come to look upon others who take more time 
for social amenities with something like a 
feeling of pity, if not contempt, as being idlers. 

Another and a graver difficulty besets us. 
Disguise it as we may, we are inclined to con- 
sider ourselves and the race to which we be- 
long as being somehow inherently superior to 
those to whom we go. We have idealized and 
boasted of the Anglo-Saxon so far beyond the 
bounds of either truth or good manners that 
we have come to take ourselves more seriously 
and others more contemptuously than they 
can grant. I do not mean that either of these 
limitations is consciously present in the think- 
ing of the missionary, but it is difficult for 
young people, be they never so pious and ear- 
nest, to rise above the limitations of the com- 
munities in which they have been bred. 

But, if one is to approach the East so as to 
win its respect and detain its attention, both 
these traits must be overcome, and the mission- 


ary must think himself steadily into a sincere 
belief that there is no such thing as an inferior 
people. Human stuff is human stuff wherever 
you find it. There are peoples whose sur- 
roundings and heredity, whose false beliefs 
and lack of educational opportunities, leave 
them pitifully undeveloped. But it is safe to 
say that with any individual of such a race, 
if he be segregated from the obstructive in- 
fluences of his tribe or nation, and be given 
an opportunity for a Christian education and 
for receiving the high ideals of the gospel 
and all the redemptive forces which that 
gospel brings, there is no reason to suppose 
that he will be inferior to the men of any other 
race who have had no better opportunities 
than he. And the proof of this may be found 
in any mission land. Any missionary will 
tell you of stalwart characters, for whom he 
holds the highest esteem and affection, derived 
in a single generation from the lowliest peo- 
ples; and the native churches of all the lands 
show, in the two or three generations of their 
Christian membership, large numbers of choice 
peoples, the peers of the picked men and 
women of any race. It was of such a product 
as this, the gracious and beautiful Lila Vati 
Singh, of India, that President Harrison said, 
at the Ecumenical Conference on Foreign Mis- 


sions in the city of New York, "If I had in- 
vested a million dollars in missions, and the 
only product was the lady the audience has 
just heard, I Avould consider the investment 
adequately repaid." There are hundreds of 
such men and women to be found in all the 
mission lands of the world. Tlxey are the first 
fruits of that o^lorious company which Chris- 
tian faith and hope dare to predict will be 
nation-wide in all the lands of the earth. 

The messenger, therefore, in Avhom, after 
all, the messai>'e is concreted, must approach 
the people to whom he goes with the deference 
that each of us owes any immortal, however 
he may be disguised, and must show that defer- 
ence in courteous and kindly ways, so that it 
may be manifest and easily understood by the 
stranger to whom he goes. Love is always 
winsome, and love will seek hard to interpret 
itself in terms that cannot be misunderstood. 
Better lack of preparation in a hundred other 
regards than lack of preparation of heart to 
esteem men as such, and to love men the more 
because of the pathos of their lowly and un- 
developed condition. Said an old Mohamme- 
dan to me one day in the city of Bombay, 
when, with some others, we were preaching on 
the street : "Where is the little gentleman with 
the lonsr beard? He does not come now." I 


did not iumiediatelj recognize thf portrait, 
and the old man added, "He did not talk our 
language well, and we did not always under- 
stand him, but he loved us all, and we were 
always glad to see and hear him.'' 

Henry Drummond, in one of his remarkable 
speeches to the Northfield students, assured 
them that they would begin to preach the 
gospel in a foreign land long before they mas- 
tered its language. The look in their eyes, 
the instinctive kindness and courtesy of their 
acts, would all make inroads upon the affec- 
tions of the people and win some assent to 
their first messages even when they were blun- 
deringly spoken. When, with such prepara- 
tion of heart, the messenger has something of 
a depth of knowledge of the things of God, 
some powers of utterance in the acquired 
tongue, one may look for a career which will 
be marked with the wonders of that trans- 
forming power which God's Spirit never with- 
holds from earnest-hearted men and women, 
who thrust forth into the dark and difficult 
situations of the pagan world. The word of 
Christ, the messages of God, conveyed by the 
Holy Spirit through the personality and by 
the gifts of such literally transformed indi- 
viduals and societies, will and do bring in 
the new day over vast areas of depressed 


humanity. The real wonder-worker among 
the nations is the foreign missionary, when 
thus fitted in head and heart to be a suitable 
messenger and bearer of those soul-subduing 
and life-transforming truths which are con- 
tained in the gospel of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. The message is a message of 

'Tis life of which our nerves are scant, 
More life and better that we want. 

To this universal need the glad message 
comes of Him who came that we might have 
life and have it more abundantly. 

And last, but all-comprehensive, the mission- 
ary preacher needs the fullness of the Holy 
Spirit — the secret of the hiding places of God's 
power, for the Spirit is He who is the illu- 
minator, the quickener, the energizer of th(.^ 
spiritual life among all men. Though there 
be all knowledge, personal amiability, and 
eagerness to win, unless there be added that 
inexpressible something, that ineffable, mys- 
terious but all-compelling energy which is 
from above, the preaching will be largely in 

Follow the records of missionary triumph, 
and see how always it has been the men 
bedewed with the Spirit's presence and 
anointed with his power who have been the 


i;^Teat conquerors, from Peter at Pentecost to 
I he humblest native worker who, in teeming 
India or China, <>athers his countrymen into 
the church by the score. How came William 
Taylor, in unfamiliar South Africa, speaking 
through interpreters, to gather native converts 
by the hundred, or, years after in more diffi- 
cult Bombay, still through interpreters, to win 
Parsees, high-caste Hindus, and Mohamme- 
dans, as well as godless nominal Christians, to 
humble surrender to Jesus Christ? Read the 
thrilling story of the Baptist Ongole Mission, 
or the even more fascinating tale of how^ at 
the Adjudhya mela in India, Missionary 
Knowles, with a band of bowed and weeping 
native helpers, saw scores of Hindus, of all 
castes and conditions, seek the Lord Christ 
with an abandon and depth of earnestness not 
to be exceeded in a revival in any Christian 
land. Go forth in Manchuria and Mongolia. 
Let the great company of missionaries tell of 
hundreds of others who have been victorious 
"turners of the world upside down.'' They 
have seen opium-smokers of China saved; 
proud, conceited literati awed into humble- 
ness; gross clod-bound coolies touched with 
the powder and the grace of the Invisible. Con- 
temptuous Brahmans of India have humbled 
themselves; fierce Moslems have cried for 


mercy at the cross; the poor have been up- 
lifted, the lofty brought low; the sinful and 
the sorrowing have been gladdened, and the 
oppressed and the bowed in heart have been 
joyously set free. And all this has been accom- 
plished not by the might of human knowledge, 
nor by the power of human eloquence, but by 
the Spirit of the Lord God reincarnated in 
human hearts and so preparing and pervading 
the message that came from them that before 
our eyes thousands in all lands have yielded 
themselves to the power of the invisible God. 
Again the message sounds, "Tarry ye until ye 
be indued with power from on high." The all- 
i.iclusive need of the preacher in foreign lands 
is to be a man, Stephen-like, "full of faith and 
the Holy Ghost"; then shall the gospel, 
preached through his lips, be powerful to win 
the individual and recreate society. 

Behind "the message" is ever the anointed 
messenger — indeed, he himself incarnates and 
illustrates at its best The Message. The 
power within him, the power that breathes 
through his message and gives it vitality and 
strength, is the "power of the Holy Ghost," 
the Spirit of that abiding pentecost which is 
to be renewed from generation to generation 
in all the lands and among all the peoples of 





1. Under the term "India-' is included a 
wide diversity of peoples of varying character- 
istics. This arises from the size of the coun- 
try, the circumstances of the origin and 
present life of the people. The earlier dark- 
skinned people of inferior development seem 
to have been driven by successive waves of 
invasion from the north into the extreme south 
and up into the mountain country. These 
dark-skinned people have been slowly reli- 
giously engulfed by the later comers, but pre- 
serve, even under a common religious name, 
many distinguishing marks both of earlier 
beliefs and tribal customs. Each of these peo- 
ples speaks a language more or less different 
from the others and has developed widely 
varying customs; besides, each part numbers 
several million people, which prevents the easy 
assimilation of any fraction with any other. 
Up till recent years these diverse parts, sepa- 
rated by languages and customs, were con- 
fined each to its own area. There were no 
means of rapid intercommunication. Fifty 
years ago railroads were almost unknown. 



The difficulties and dangers of travel Avere 
great. India is, therefore, a congeries of na- 
tions rather than a single people. 

Any effort to affect India as a whole is 
necessarily hedged about with difficulties in- 
numerable. When one people of India differs 
more from another than a Russian does from 
an Englishman, or an Italian does from either, 
it will be easily seen that methods of presen- 
tation and appeal for either neAV thinking or 
doing must be very carefully studied. An 
abolition program presented to the people of 
Massachusetts and Louisiana in ante-bellum 
days would not have been more variously re- 
ceived than many a religious prescription that 
is too often put with a mere change of language 
before martial, high-spirited Sikh or Rajput 
and the comparatively timid Bengali or even 
more widely differing Tamil. Added to these 
what might be called natural diversities are 
the even more penetrating and abiding differ- 
ences made by the religious life of the land. 
In its place this matter will be more ade- 
quately treated; suffice it now to say that the 
social cleavages, sanctioned and hardened by 
religion, are even more divisive than all the 
factors we have already named. Hinduism 
sets people apart by its caste system with rigid 
boundaries, and breeds in the more favored a 


hard and bitter contempt for the h)wer-caste 
man. No Pharisee of Christ's day eA^er looked 
with deeper loathing upon a despised publican 
than does the Brahman of India look upon the 
Sudra or pariah, the man of low caste. All 
these things make the presentation of the gos- 
pel in India, with its pervasive teaching for 
all realms of life, a matter that calls for close 
study of the people and for such tact and in- 
sight as only a large love outpoured by God's 
Spirit can give us. 

In approaching this study let it be remem- 
bered that the older India was iu the van of 
human civilization long before the Christian 
era. It is i)robable that the Aryan forefathers 
of India's later peoples and our own fore- 
fathers lived somewhere in the Caucasian 
region. Their forefathers migrated east and 
south, while ours went west and north. All 
those w^ho entered India accomplished a nobler 
and earlier civilization. For while our fore- 
fathers were semi-savages, roaming the forests 
of Europe or sailing the northern seas, the 
Indian Aryans came to a high degree of de- 
velopment. They perfected the industrial arts, 
built good houses, plowed their fields, raised 
their cattle, and, above all, they delved deep 
into philosophy, wrote such magnificent 
poetry as may be found in the enrli'^r hymns 


of the Vedas, or sacred books of India, and 
later wrote such marvelous epic poems as the 
"Maha Bharata^' and "Ramayana," and such 
involved philosophical treatises as the Pura- 
nas, etc. The earliest religion of these Indian 
Aryans seems to have been a veiled monothe- 
ism, for, while they deified all the appearances 
of nature, they seem to have Avorshiped but 
one at a time, and in this worship all other 
phenomena were out of sight. Professor Max 
Mtiller calls this "henotheism." In it the early 
Aryans seem to have tried to pierce the outer 
forms to find the inner Being. But, alas ! the 
effort to preserve monotheism without direct 
revelations from God has always proved abor- 
tive. In time the varied phenomena in the 
heavens and earth were represented by images ; 
henotheism sank into polytheism, and polythe- 
ism sank into gross idolatry. Their life was 
burdened with religious ritual and the 
Brahman priest, the director and framer of 
the ritual, was lifted into primacy. Mean- 
while our section of the Aryan family was met 
by the Christian gospel, and, under its human- 
izing and stimulating contact, we entered that 
path of progress which has brought us so far 
along the road to a better civilization. We 
too have much to learn ; but, it is only fair to 
the facts to recomize the sreat advance that 


has been made by the Western branch of the 
Aryan family. 

This makes the approach more delicate and 
difficult. Aroused India recalls the glories of 
the earlier day. She must not be treated as 
"heathen." The man highly blessed must 
approach the less privileged with tender con- 
cern and marked respect, and the invitation 
to consider the treasure with which Jesus, 
that great Son of Asia, has enriched us must 
be conveyed with Avinsome words and loving 
solicitude and with those various arts and 
accents, that love and knowledge teach, to 
these the older brethren of the family who 
have temporarily lost their way, but must 
now be brought back again. 

2. In bringing the gospel to India it is a 
matter for congratulation that, amid all diffi- 
culties, there is one outstanding quality of the 
man of India that makes for the redemption 
of the land — the people are intensely religious. 
To others religion may be a department of 
life, largely bounded by Sundays and hours of 
prayer and Bible study. With the Hindu all 
life is regulated by religion. While in re- 
ligion, as in all else, there is infinite variety of 
thinking and outward practice, yet it is equally 
true of all schools of thought and of all varia- 
tions of outward forms that India is held in 


the grip of religious prescription. From the 
contemplative Yogi, or the Brahman, highly 
punctilious in the thousand and one acts of 
worship that claim his attention from early 
dawn to the time he closes his eyes, calling on 
his favorite god, down to the ignorant pariah, 
who knows but enough to cry ^'Bam, Ram, 
Ram,'' no act of life is without minute religious 
direction. The morning ablutions, the cleans- 
ing of the teeth, the wearing of the hair, the 
cut and color of the garments, the methods of 
preparation and eating of food, the day and 
manner of marriage, of all domestic events, 
and the disposal of all matters from birth to 
death, are all minutely prescribed, and India 
is held as in the grip of a vise. High philo- 
sophic thinking is there, the loftiest spiritual 
flights vouchsafed to any race, with such clear 
statements of rare devotion as fill one with 
delight. Side by side Avith this is the debased 
demon-worship, the unspeakable vileness of 
sex-worship, and the orgies of lusts which pre- 
vail in more than one sacred shrine; all are 
equally sacred; all equally hold sway in the 
name of religion. A thoroughgoing pantheism 
makes the lights and the shades equally 
divine. But when it comes to the daily life, be 
a man's opinions and nominal beliefs high or 
low, conduct is prescribed by minute ritual 


(liriMiioji. Life is therefore i)ractically iii)art 
from belief; and this divorce has broiiglil to 
India an unreality and what looks to the 
Western mind like an insincerity, which must 
be recognized and taken into account. The 
loftiest thinking and the most depraved beliefs 
seem equally powerless to affect life^s levels. 
C'onduct seems unrelated to belief. Perhaps 
you will see how a thoroughgoing pantheism, 
accompanied by a rigid ritual prescription — 
the outcome of long priestly domination — can 
bring about the strange and difl&cult con- 
ditions here so briefly sketched; but behind it 
all lies the strength of the deep devotion w^hich 
makes it possible for an accepted religious 
code to absolutely govern a people in their 
course of life. When the law of Christ shall 
supersede the Brahmanical code what may we 
look for? 

3. Into this strange, rigid, inwardly con- 
templative but outwardly fixed life, where the 
rules of religion accepted by the many make 
almost impossible any departure from the 
form by the individual, there has come in 
recent years the impact of a civilization and 
of reforming forces as widely different as the 
human mind can conceive. The English rule 
and the Christian gospel are the newcomers 
calling for a complete change of front, for an 


entire reversal, both in thought and in many 
living ways. 

Under orthodox Hinduism the caste cult is 
supreme; the individual is merely a subject 
atom, whose place is fixed without any refer- 
ence to either his quality or his capacity. The 
Brahman by birth and the pariah by birth are 
in very different social positions; nor does the 
law that applies to the one hold for the other. 
Such a thing as even-handed justice for two 
such diverse particles as these is impossible 
under the Hindu caste system. Here steps in 
British law and insists that in a court of jus- 
tice any man is the peer of any other man, and 
that to both alike even justice must be admin- 
istered. Sometimes when British law dis- 
tinctly meets Hindu sentiment there is a 
collision. For example : When, years ago, the 
Gaekwar of Baroda was practically proved 
guilty of causing an attempt upon the life 
of the Kesident at his court, General Phayre, 
who barely escaped being killed by poison, the 
Commission that tried him — consisting, as it 
did, of orthodox Hindus — practically con- 
cluded that he had been guilty of the crime, but 
would not so announce their verdict, lest the 
dreaded British court might cause the Gaek- 
war, a Brahman prince, to be hanged. And 
this, not because he was a prince, but because 


he was a Brahman. The British untlerstocKl 
the verdict, dispossessed him of his throne, 
and banished him from the country. Simi- 
larly, Hinduism prescribed sati, or death by 
fire, to the willing widow who ascendeil her 
husband^s funeral pyre. British law makes 
presence at a sati a crime punishable with 
heavy imprisonment; for it refuses to recog- 
nize any human right to suicide. Female 
infanticide is perfectly permissible under Hin- 
duism. British law calls it murder; that is, 
this new law insists upon dealing with each 
individual as a person, and will accept no over- 
riding of the rights of the individual by any 
supposed religious domination of the caste 
law or the priesthood. 

In social matters also is an entire upsetting 
of the older order. In the olden days Brah- 
mans went to school. Low-caste men were 
wholly illiterate, nor did any of them ever dare 
to intrude upon th(^ sacred inclosure of the 
temple schools. Now Brahman and pariah sit 
side by side in the mission and government 
schools in spite of all protest. The railroads 
also are subverters of custom. It used to be 
that the very shadow of a pariah or Sudra 
contaminated the holy Brahman; but Brah- 
mans must travel and railroads are convenient, 
and whoever buys a ticket has a right to his 


place. The unconscious guard comes along 
and thrusts Brahman and pariah indiscrimi- 
nately into the same narrow space, and, while 
merely discharging his railroad duties, he in- 
cidentally breaks old caste prejudices into a 
thousand pieces. 

Then, again, the new industrial world opens 
diversified employments to men of many 
castes. Each caste used to follow its own 
avocation and was a trade guild. But what 
is to be done when new machines dispossess 
whole areas of avocations and call men, thus 
dispossessed, to new careers as machinists 
and factory-workers? For example: The mil- 
lions of India used to be clothed with hand- 
made cloth produced by millions of hand-loom 
weavers. Now Manchester and Bombay pro- 
duce more cloth woven by machinery than will 
clothe all India. What is the weaver caste 
to do? It must turn to other things. The 
trade of India used to be carried by long pro- 
cessions of oxcarts; there were millions of 
men engaged in driving the oxen and conduct- 
ing these wagon caravans. Now tens of thou- 
sands of miles of railroads cover the land. 
What are the oxcart men to do? Hundreds of 
thousands of them are dispossessed and must 
go to work on the railroad and in other places. 
All this tends to put the land in a ferment. 


Take another realm : Eai^er students of the 
unfolding of Eu.ulisli history perceive that the 
p^rowth of English liberties kept pace with the 
fusing of the peoples into one speech and one 
conception of life, that is, one religion. For 
the most part, educated India is high-caste 
India outside of the active temple priests. 
What a conflict there must be between young 
high-caste India's desire to perpetuate in- 
herite<i domination over the lower castes and 
the kindling hope of India's autonomy which 
this same educated young India can see to be 
impossible without a unifying national feeling 
bringing all classes together in a way which 
the old order forbids. Suppose that nine 
tenths of the Americans were Negroes, and 
the remaining one tenth were taught by their 
religion to despise the Negro and keep him in 
practical servitude, and yet the whole-hearted 
cooperation of the Negro were necessary to 
secure the freedom of the land from foreign 
domination ; and, further, suppose that a pro- 
portion of the Negroes was sufficiently edu- 
cated to know their manhood's worth and 
therefore felt keen resentment against social 
disesteem; and suppose that there were not 
only this one line of cleavage but that the 
nation had many such social fissures fixed by 
religion, separating class from class — can the 


turmoil of thought be imagined when such a 
people comes into contact with our modern 
conception of the solidarity that is necessary 
to make a strong national life? This is the 
turmoil that the English presence and educa- 
tion are producing in India. And in the midst 
of this political and social searching of hearts 
is the cry of Christianity on the streets and in 
the bazaars and villages of India calling men 
to recognize the presence of a personal Father 
God and to disentangle personality from the 
gloomy, solemn moving of a spirit-machine 

Christ declares that man is not the product 
of impersonal forces grinding on through the 
centuries; but that all things begin and end 
in a Personal Will abounding in love for dis- 
crete beings, whom the Central Will and Love 
ceaselessly seeks to lead to higher good. The 
call is, therefore, to the individual will, to 
active personal choice. The road is open to 
each. The call is sounded for all. The entire 
conception is antipodal and startling to Hin- 
duism. Add to this the utter reversal of social 
ways the new religion calls for. It teaches 
a fundamental democracy. Wherever thor- 
oughly understood it destroys all permanence 
in class distinctions. It knows "neither 
Greek nor Jew, bond nor free,'' man nor 


woman; nor does it know priest from peopk^ — 
"Ye are a royal priesthood.-' Our wonder 
should not be that India does not immediately 
respond, but, rather, that any of her people 
have patience to give any heed at all to a 
scheme so subvertin": and a philosophy so 
seeming topsy-turvy. The more one considers 
the whole subject, the more does one's sym- 
pathy go forth to the perplexed people; the 
more inevitable we perceive to be the birth- 
pangs of thought that must accompany the 
new life of India, the more patient we will be 
with the slowness of the movement, and the 
more intensely desirous of the full power of 
the Holy Spirit, without whom the task w^ere 
impossible. In all the realm of religion and 
life is no such Gibraltar against Christ 
as India and Hinduism. In all the universe 
no such conqueror of Gibraltars, by the power 
of love, as Christ, the Lord of the hearts of 

4. In the slow revolution of thought and 
life that these modern forces are bringing 
about in India no class is more affected than 
the women of the land. Under Hinduism the 
place of woman was gradually circumscribed 
from the freedom of earlier Aryan days until 
she has been deprived of all social liberty and 
of much religious privilege. Nevertheless, 


within the narrow limits of home, personality 
will assert itself, and the wife and mother are 
often more potent influences than the men 
care to admit. In the coming new order, a 
larger place is being slowly won for woman. 
Educated Hindus themselves tire of ignorant 
wives and are seeking education for the women 
and girls of their families ; and many a modern 
home in India is having the immeasurable joy 
of mental and spiritual companionship be- 
tween the men and women of the family. In 
the olden day, when a Hindu was asked by 
one of the early missionaries in Calcutta 
whether he would not like his daughters also 
to be educated, he replied by pointing out of 
the window at a horse and inquiring, "Will 
you want to educate that too?'' That day is 
largely past. Girls in numbers are found in 
thousands of missions and government schools, 
and the Hindus themselves are projecting 
girls' high schools. At the Isabella Thoburn 
Woman's College in Lucknow there are now 
being conducted separate hostels for high- 
caste Hindu and Moslem women at the request 
of their own people. A gradual loosening of 
the severity of social restrictions begins to 
appear. Timidly, and in but few instances 
as yet, women begin to emerge at social func- 
tions in restricted circles. There is even the 


beginning of a "Avoman's club" life in some of 
the cities; and women's utterances may be 
read, if not heard, on various matters — social, 
political, religious. All this is, of course, not 
without opposition and something of ferment 
in the mind of older orthodox India; never- 
theless, the woman life of India goes forward. 
The constant visitation of the secluded women 
by lady missionaries and others, and particu- 
larly the reading of the Christian Bible, all 
help to enlarge and liberate. ^^Surely a woman 
wrote your Bible,'' wistfully said a woman of 
the zenana to a missionary visitor; "it is so 
kind to women." It was a mission school girl 
who, when she became the queen of a semi- 
independent king of a large India province, 
vowed she would not rest till the age when a 
girl must retire into the zenana should be 
raised from eleven to twelve years — and she 
succeeded. Think of the winning of an added 
year of girlhood for millions of bright-eyed 
little ones I The old order changeth. The new 
day comes. 

5. Among the men the low castes have much 
to gain by the spread of Christianity, for : 

(1) It brings them education. The old 
thraldom, bound by bands of ignorance, can- 
not remain. Knowledge is a great emancipa- 
tor. The light of the cross falls also upon a 


spelling book. All that Booker T. Washing- 
ton urges for Negro education is true also of 
low-caste Hindu education; and only Christ 
encourages this. Bishop Arnett, encouraging 
our Negro friends, said some years ago, "Get 
hold of three books, the Bible, the spelling 
book, and the bank book, and nothing can keep 
you down." The pariah and the Sudra of 
India are finding the advice worth while. 

(2) It brings social deliverance. The 
social life of Hinduism is built like a pyramid. 
The low castes — the many — are below; the 
higher castes, ever narrowing in numbers as 
thej ascend, rise higher and higher until the 
apex is the 2,000,000 Brahmans who, socially, 
are elevated above the rest. And all this, 
however it may have come about, is now a 
matter of family birth. When the democratic 
teachings of Christ finally prevail to pick out 
the bottom of the pyramid it can easily be seen 
what will happen to the top. In the long run 
Christ undermines all factitious privilege, and 
whether it be a hereditary House of Lords in 
England, a monetary house of special privi- 
lege in Wall Street, or a Brahmanical pyramid 
in India, it must come down and the depressed 
man come to his own. 

(3) It promises him equality of religious 
privilege. No twice-born Brahman can stop 


the way to heaven, nor multiply against him 
the petty rituals which burden life and make 
religion a ceaseless drudj^ery. We may all 
be twice born and find in the "law of love" 
emancipation from deadly dull ritual. When 
it becomes clear to the low-caste man of India 
that these are the promises of Christ he is 
profoundly moved. And if we read of mass 
movements in which thousands of these men 
march into the Christian camp, the social im- 
pulse behind it all may easily be perceived. 
What is needed, therefore, is not stern inquisi- 
tion and ready suspicion, but sympathetic 
teaching and loving ministry, till the eyes are 
lifted to the upper heights, where the soul sees 
and learns to long for deliverance from sin, 
for pardon and for personal holiness. What 
is to be decried is not the baptism of these 
masses but failure to patiently and continu- 
ously teach and pastor them afterward. 

6. For the high-caste man of India Chris- 
tianity affords a most notable opportunity to 
recast his traditional attitude and, by giving 
up his inherited priority under Hinduism, to 
become the teacher and helper of his less 
favored brethren in answer to the Christian 
call of the new day. Of course it is no small 
matter to ask the proud leaders of many cen- 
turies, whose place is fixed by religion, to con- 


sent to step down and lay aside privilege and 
find new leadership in actual service to those 
formerly despised. And yet here lies the path- 
way to most honorable and permanent dis- 
tinction. Something like this the Samurai, 
the hereditary nobility of Japan, have done 
for the strengthening of the empire. They 
laid aside all hereditary claims and took their 
places in the army and navy and in all Japa- 
nese life alongside of the farmer peasants, and 
the result has been a greatly strengthened 
Japan. Will the high-caste men of India rise 
to even nobler heights and lead the lower caste 
to religious, social, economic levels beside 
them? Hinduism forbids, but Christianity 

It was the perception of this difficulty in 
the way of the old time Hindu, that led Henry 
Martyn to say, *^If I were to see a high-caste 
Hindu baptized, I would look upon it as a 
resurrection from the dead"; nevertheless, 
India now has hundreds of high-caste Hindus 
who have arisen from the dead life of Hindu- 
ism and have been baptized into the living 
Christ. The call of Jesus to the young man- 
hood of high-caste India must surely find re- 
sponse in the native nobility of their fresh 
young hearts. Will they have courage and 
force to make this response vocal and visible? 


7. In the conveyance of the {gospel to the 
inner mind of In<lia, which, as we have seen, 
is far removed by point of view and training]: 
from being altogetlier ready to perceive and 
understand, the great organ or means of con- 
veyance is, and can only be, the native Indian 

In any land, the gospel can speak with ut- 
most force only through the lips and in the 
lives of the children of the soil. The foreign 
missionary may be the pathfinder for the ear- 
liest advent of the gospel in any land. It may 
be his great crown of honor that, through him, 
first came the personal fellowship of a few of 
the land with Jesus Thrist, his Lord and 
theirs; but, thereafter, his most valuable 
work is to prepare teachers and preachers to 
strengthen, to advise. He can be only a John 
the Baptist : those mightier than he come after 
him. They know the language, the customs, 
the hopes and fears, the prejudices and pas- 
sions, the very heart of the people, as he can- 
not. Besides, there is an inner subtle bond of 
racial sympathy for which there is no substi- 
tute. Said a group of humble village women 
to the missionary visitor, who was trying to 
explain to them the difficult lesson of loving 
one's enemies as one of the marks of true 
Christians, "O, Mem Sahib, we know that; 


for Paul Singh iu our village does that ever 
since he was baptized at the Christians' mela." 
How powerful the word of the Lord when seen 
in the life of "Paul Singh" ! 

Whatever contribution the foreign mission- 
ary may make, and for many years, together 
with his steadying hand, his mature experi- 
ence — born of a thousand years of inheritance 
— his fidelity to truth, his clear vision, his 
courageous frankness, will be needed; never- 
theless, the chief agency for the spread of the 
kingdom must be the native church; and the 
sons and daughters of India must and will 
supply the confessors, martyrs, prophets, and 
pastors for the Christian conquest of their 
own fair land. 

And here arise many difficulties, not unex- 
pectedly. How far and how fast will the mis- 
sionary pioneer cease to direct the church's 
activities and let the natives have increasing 
and ultimately entire direction of their own 
church life? How largely shall the native 
church lean upon foreign resources for the 
expenses of its own administration? How 
largely shall self-direction be conditioned by 
self-support? And, beyond the conduct of in- 
dividual churches, what part shall be given 
the growing native leaders in the councils and 
in the authoritative decisions of the mission 

THE riilLirriNEJS 147 

policy? Shall Indian leaders be given charge 
of movements financed by foreign money? or 
shall they be encouraged and recjuired to de- 
velop indigenous resources and be intrusted 
with the entire directicm of these? The an- 
swers to these perplexing questions differ in 
the various mission camps. In brief, it may 
be said that, at first, the churches using the 
Congregational polity find readier answers, 
dealing, as they do largely, with single units; 
but whether, later, these will supply the cohe- 
sion and coordination necessary for strong 
nation-wide movements only time can show. 
India will doubtless correct the excessive in- 
dividualism this system tends to develop. 
Accustomed to move in the mass, the Indian 
will surely modify all our polities Avhen the 
larger life of the Indian church begins its 
remolding and reshaping activities. 

All the questions, however, are not of 
the internal economic life and development of 
the church. What will be its religious charac- 
teristics? what its peculiar besetments? and 
where will it find its strength? 

Every lover of India muses much on these 
questions and finds in them ground for deepest 
anxiety and exulting hope. With one consent, 
all who know the land declare India's Chris- 
tianity will be of peculiarly fragrant aroma. 


Her spiritual vision is acute ; her soul is deep ; 
her hunger for God, her thirst for the Divine 
are ever in evidence. Dr. Charles Cuthbert 
Hall said truly that we might covet India for 
the larger interpretation of tlie heart of Christ 
which she will surely bring us when, in the 
end, the whole world is Christian and all the 
nations gather with their several character- 
istics around our Lord. The apostolic college 
will be re-formed; then, with the Saxon Paul, 
the Celtic Peter, and the others, John of India 
will be found lying in his Master's bosom, 
understanding the heart of his Lord better 
than any. And when, in the day of acclaim, 
we gather to Him — the Bridegroom of the 
Soul — among the flowers gathered from all 
lands none will be more modest and fragrant 
than the jasmine of India. 

This very quality of a deep-hearted mysti- 
cism which, on the one side, fits India pecul- 
iarly to interpret the deep things of the 
Spirit, makes it also easy for her to stray into 
weird heresies in belief and amiable entangle- 
ments in conduct. Particularly is the Indian 
church likely to be beset with pantheistic 
gnosticisms on the one hand and with caste 
difficulties on the other. Whenever there has 
been a schism from any of the mission bodies 
led by native men of independent spirit, these 


two marks have invariably appeared. And in 
the churches tliemselves there has been much 
room for the practical sense of the Western 
missionary, and there will be for years. After 
all, the West has some thin^ijs to teach the 
East, and one of them is the homely Populist ic 
doctrine of ^Svalking in the middle of the 
road." It is a lesson that mystic-minded, im- 
aginative, romance-laden, most lovable India 
nee<ls to learn and is learning. Along this 
path the church moves perhaps more rapidly 
than the missionaries perceive. Wisdom calls 
for a larger trust and a readier recognition of 
the capacity and real value of the native lead- 
ers. It is always safer, as well as nobler, to 
concede rights before they are demanded and 
often even before full fitness is seen. For the 
most part, w^e all learn in the doing, and full 
fitness before actual practice in affairs is an 
impossible qualification. On the other hand, 
heady immaturity may call for concessions 
that can only hurt. To preserve purity of 
Ohristian doctrine in essentials; to fix forms 
of conduct becoming to a Xew Testament 
church; to achieve practical sense for the or- 
ganization and conduct of churches; to main- 
tain loving, but not entangling, relations with 
surrounding non-Christian communities; in a 
word, to live the life of the original Christian 


Church amid the difi&cult surroundings of the 
social and national life of India — all this gives 
rise to endless questions, and for their solu- 
tion the utmost tact and kindness of spirit 
and a divine patience are needed, with un- 
ceasing reliance upon "that wisdom that 
Cometh from above." 

8. It will be apparent from what has 
already been written that the diversities and 
confusions of India need some great unifying 
force to bring together the diverse peoples, of 
various origins and separated by the religious 
chasms of castes, into solidarity and real na- 
tional unity. Two solvents there are at work 
in India tending to unify ; the one touches the 
intelligence, the other the whole life. These 
are the English language and Christianity. 

For the first time in history the various men 
of India may read each other's thoughts and 
learn each other's opinions in a common lan- 
guage. When "The Indian Congress," a purely 
volunteer and nonofficial body, meets each 
year, the leaders, gathered from all the prov- 
inces of India, confer in the same tongue. The 
Bengali addresses the Mahratta, and the 
Gujarat i speaks to the Urdu man of Lucknow; 
but none of India's myriad tongues is heard. 
There is a common vehicle for all their 
thoughts. It is the gift of the alien English- 


man; and in giving English to India the Eng- 
lishman has bestowed a gift invaluable. But 
more deeply yet, because interiorly, in that 
subconscious territory which underlies thought 
and feeling, is needed the solvent of religion 
for unifying, not only the speech, but the soul 
of India. And where shall this solvent be 
found, if not in Christianity? For what India 
needs is deep words, bringing reality and hope. 
Hinduism has neither. At its best it is but 
poor preparation for national life in this most 
stirring day. At its latest and worst it makes 
national cohesion and any truly national 
spirit and life impossible. There may be in 
it infinite patience for bearing the ills of life, 
but no word of hope, no call to courage for 
progress and onward movement. If India is 
ever to come to her national selfhood, it can- 
not be while under the sway of Hinduism. If 
woman is to be enfranchised, and rise to the 
full dignity of a person among persons ; if the 
individual is to be free from the weight of the 
mass; if all men are to be given equal rights 
to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," 
it must be under a less pessimistic and rigid 
system than Hinduism. 

And this is already in the minds of many of 
the educated men of India. A missionary of 
much experience recently interviewed forty- 


two Indian gentlemen in the course of a three- 
day railway journey. He sa\v them one by one, 
and spoke only after winning the good will 
of each. He asked, "What do you think of 
Jesus Christ?'' To his deep gratification, 
twenty-four answered, in effect, "We acknowl- 
edge him our Spiritual Lord and Master; wo 
read his words daily; we adore him and try 
to pattern after him." To the further ques- 
tion, "What is the ultimate hope of India 
emerging as a nation?" thirty-two of them 
answered: "There is no hope unlCvSS we get 
together, and we can be drawn together only 
by a common religion. That religion will 
probably be Christianity." The other nine 
were more or less in opposition to Christianity 
as a foreign religion. 

The conviction slowly gathers force in many 
thousands of devout minds, outside of the 
Christian Church in India, that not Christi- 
anity in its organized Western form, but 
Christ, the great Over-Lord of Asia, is to be 
the Uniter and Eedeemer of this people. In 
him, woman will find her place ; and the Aryan 
and the non-Aryan, the Brahman and the 
Sudra, will find their common bond. Methods 
of church organization and expressions of 
credal forms may vary, but Jesus the Saviour 
will be the center of India's devotion. 



I now turn to the actual missionary opera- 
tions carried on in India, and to the large 
opportunities for service the land presents. 

Here, as elsewhere, our missionary opera- 
tions are Educational, Medical, Industrial^ 
and Evangelistic. In another lecture I treat 
this variety of methods at some length. Here 
I discuss their special operation in India. 

1. Educational Missions. Among so intelli- 
gent a people as the Hindus, with their natu- 
ral aptitude for learning and their high esteem 
for mental progress, it will be easily seen that 
educational missions are peculiarly attractive 
and significant. 

It was the great Dr. Duff who, a century 
ago, ventured to harness the higher education 
in gospel traces, and demonstrated in the 
great institutions he founded in Calcutta that 
vital piety and learning can not only go to- 
gether, but that vital piety can nowhere be 
better taught and secure more attentive hear- 
ing than in a seat of learning. 

What makes educational missions more 
easily possible, too, in India is the attitude of 
the English government toward the mission 
schools. No more liberal treatment is granted 
to such institutions under any flag on earth. 


Not only are they granted freedom of opera- 
tion and perfect protection, but a financial 
grant-in-aid is made to all of them that comply 
with the reasonable demands for adequate 
plant and staff of teachers. 

These educational missions are most valu- 
able in two directions : 

First, among non-Christians who, while often 
maintaining their attitude of loyalty to their 
own religion, still recognize the fine quality 
of the missionary teachers and the moral re- 
straints thrown about their schools. I know 
of no finer illustration of the place of the 
missionary college in the esteem of the people, 
nor of the outcomes afforded by such colleges, 
than in the case of the Madras Christian Col- 
lege, of which the famous Dr. William Miller 
was the principal through several glorious 
decades. When he was elected moderator of 
the Free Church of Scotland, in 1896, an ad- 
dress was presented to him, signed with fifteen 
hundred names of the students and alumni 
of the college in which he had spent his life. 
The great majority of these were still nomi- 
nally Hindus. In their Address they say, 
after describing the college : 

"Within this center of intellectual activity, 
of moral growth and religious inquiry, the 
highest ideals of duty and self-sacrifice are 


placed before the students by professors dis- 
tinguished for their scholarship, earnestness, 
and piety, and when the student has passe^l 
from under the shelter of his alma mater, the 
College Magazine serves in a measure to do 
what the living voice of the professor can no 
longer do, and contributes to stren^tlion that 
bond of sympathy and love between the college 
and its alumni, of which the annual ^Christian 
College Day' gathering is one of the clearest 
and most convincing proofs. 

"The restless sense of deficiencies, the crav- 
ing for new power, the eagerness to appropri- 
ate new forms of thought and to assimilate 
new forms of goodness, the recognition of for- 
gotten truth and neglected good in the past 
history of this country, all which have fol- 
lowed the intellectual reawakening of this 
land, are some of the more significant results 
of the manifold activities put forth by such 
institutions as the Madras Christian College." 

Profoundly significant was the speech of 
Principal Rainy, which followed the reading 
of the Address, in which he said : 

"But, Moderator, w^e know something more 
about them which they do not tell us. We 
know that in the college this world of thought 
and impression has been saturated for them 
with the name and the memory and the teach- 


ing of Christ. That is irrevocably done for 
these men ; it can never be taken out of them. 
Henceforth, do what they will, go where they 
may, that follows them. 

"They speak of ideals, but they cannot sepa- 
rate man's ideals from the Man Jesus Christ. 
They speak of truth; and questions about 
truth involve the question. What about 
Christ? They speak to us of goodness, and, 
more faintly perhaps, or more vividly, more 
lightly or more seriously, does there not rise 
on their memory a Face, marred more than 
any man, that carries an image and message 
of goodness, leaving all else of goodness behind 
it and below it? They speak of necessity and 
want; and, surely, the thought must come of 
all that has been pressed on them of one 
supreme want and one supreme supply for it. 
Yes, more or less distinctly. One has knocked 
at the door of every one of these men, and is 
knocking still. Among the many voices that 
have thrilled and stirred and intoxicated them 
there is still a still, small voice. It has claimed 
them ; and it does not cease to speak, for there 
is no patience like the patience of Christ. The 
presence of Christ follows them through their 
lives. What will come of it in the individual 
cases I do not know. I suppose that perhaps 
in many, many cases nothing will come of it 


that you or I or anyone can see. But, surely, 
the existence of such men is a leaven in India. 
And as men multiply whose mind and outlook 
are of this type, surely a day will come, in the 
providence of God, when that leaven will begin 
to ferment and to set in great processes of 
change. What form those changes will take 
I do not prescribe. He knows and he will 
make it plain, through whatever processes, 
that his word shall not return to him void. 
Meanwhile, fathers and brethren, O how 
greatly one desires that these interesting 
lives with which we have been brought into 
touch in the way the Address suggests, might 
be purified and gladdened by the love of 

And he expressed at once the fervent hope 
of all Christ-loving men, and this fact, that 
that hope has good ground in the work that 
is done in the leavening of influential circles 
which could not be approached by ordinary 

The second great value of educational mis- 
sions is that they train the youth of the Chris- 
tian Church to wider intelligence and greater 
capacity for affairs. Most of the Christians 
of the first generation, after the historic pre- 
cedents in the spread of Christianity, are de- 
rived from the poor and unprivileged classes. 


They are met with social scorn, and in many 
communities are boycotted from obtaining 
suitable employment. To become a Christian, 
therefore, is to invite added disrespect and 
positive physical hardship, at least during the 
early days of the Christian presence in many 

Christian schools taking hold upon the chil- 
dren of these lowly people prepare them to 
more than recover their place in the economic 
life of the land and to win the respect which 
trained minds cannot fail to secure under any 
conditions. Repeatedly the word comes from 
India, for instance, of the sons and grandsons 
of low-caste chamars, who were looked upon 
by their high-caste neighbors as the very dust 
under their feet ; but these children and grand- 
children through Christian education have 
come to be prominent figures, both in the com- 
mercial and governmental life of the land, and 
as such are commanding the respect of their 

The consequent uplift of the entire Chris- 
tian body is, therefore, the outcome of the 
Christian schools. Indeed, one of the most 
attractive social features presented by the 
young Christian churches in many foreign 
lands is the growing place of influence and 
leadership that is being won by the educated 

THE nilLlPriNES 159 

descendants of very humble converts, who in 
their day endured added hardships for pro- 
fessing the Christian faith. 

2. Medical Missions, Medical missions 
opened another wide door of access to needy 
people. This is probably as true in our 
crow^ded cities at home as in the foreign field, 
with this difference : in lands like China, and 
India, and Africa the missionary physicians 
and hospitals are superior to anything that 
money can buy for even the w^ealthiest of the 
people, while, on the other hand, the thronging 
masses are without medical help of any kind. 
The cruelties that have been practiced upon 
these patient peoples by their own untrained 
doctors gTeatly stir the sympathetic observer, 
and medical missions at least command the 
approval and support of all kind-hearted 
people and are warmly welcomed by those to 
whom they go. Said an old Arab to his com- 
panions, whom he led triumphantly into the 
Beirut hospital in Syria, pointing to Dr. 
Jessup, "There is the man who gives eyes to 
the blind," while Wanless, of Miraj, in India, 
is hailed far and wide as "the man who raises 
people from the dead" ; and hundreds of other 
physicians are similiarly met with glad 
acclaim and response by grateful peoples 
among whom they live. These missions, ac- 


companied by an earnest x^resentation of 
gospel truth, ought to be largely increased in 
every land. 

3. Industrial Missions. Industrial missions 
are peculiarly needed in India for the training 
of artisans and mechanics. The Hindu has 
but scant skill as a workman. No greater 
boon can be taken to India in its economic 
development than industrial training. This 
becomes of greater importance as the Indians 
gather strength in numbers to lift the low- 
caste people to higher levels, and to make 
possible Christian church which can suffi- 
ciently prosper to make early self-support pos- 
sible. It will be increasingly necessary to 
afford our young people the opportunity of 
becoming skillful workmen. 

4. Evangelistic Missions, The distinctly 
evangelistic mission is, of course, the central 
method of propagating the Christian faith. It 
must always be, as it was among the Corin- 
thians, to whom Paul said, "It pleased God by 
the foolishness of preaching to save them that 
believe." Whatever the variety of the method 
of approach, the declaring of the Christian 
message is the chief matter aimed at; and in 
India this preaching has been peculiarly 
powerful in its effect, particularly among the 
masses of the low-caste peoples. Here the 


agents must increasingly be the sons and 
daughters of the soil. But few foreigners can 
command the speech of the people and know 
their modes of thought and point of view 
sufficiently to commend the gospel in public 
speech, while a man of India, standing in the 
midst of men of India — bone of their bone 
and soul of their soul — can convey the high 
messages of hope and freedom with a kindling 
heart and powerful persuasion. I have seen 
such a man stand in the bazaar and bear down 
all opposition by the power of personality, 
kindled with love and aflame with zeal; and 
I have seen him change from one language to 
another, and from one set of illustrations to 
another, until, in three languages and w-ith 
varying illustrations, he showed that he knew 
the innermost life of the different peoples who 
were before him. He swayed the audience, 
which numbered over five hundred persons, 
until the close of the address, when, with mar- 
velous skill, he led from the outworks, where 
he gently touched the points of agreement, 
drove them into the innermost citadel of their 
defenses, and finally took that citadel by 
storm, leaving the people deeply moved — so 
deeply moved that on this occasion they would 
not hear the opposers who sought at the close 
to raise opposition and counter argument. He 


did that which no foreigner could ever have 

On another occasion, in a little village gath- 
ering under the open sky, illumined by a 
harvest moon, I heard this same man plead 
so tenderly with a group of earnest, simple- 
hearted villagers that forty-one of them out of 
the forty-four who were present arose to say 
they were wholly convinced that they ought 
to make their peace Avith God through Jesus 
Christ, and were willing there and then to be 
baptized into the Christian faith. The 
preacher had been with them several times 
before; but no foreigner could have reached 
the very depths of their souls as did this man 
in my hearing. Not all Indian preachers are 
great speakers, but they all know their people, 
and when they are sincere and true-hearted 
Christians themselves their word is possessed 
of marked power. I once inquired of fourteen 
women, gathered in a little group, what led 
them to become Christians. Every one of 
them, by word or silent pointing of the finger, 
indicated a gray-haired, wizen-faced old Bible 
woman, who sat on the floor just out of our 
hearing, crooning to herself a Tamil lyric 
which she had recently learned. Naming her, 
they said, "She has the power of God in her, 
and when she comes to our homes and sits 


among us our hearts all turn to water and 
there is no strength in us to resist her words." 

The woman niissionarj' is not only an im- 
portant, but an essential factor in the evan- 
gelization of India. The sexes are almost 
completely segregated, except among the 
lowest castes, and even there the idea that a 
woman is a person is only now beginning to 
dawn upon the Indian mind. When the census 
returns show that less than three per cent of 
the women of India are literate at the opening 
of the twentieth century, and when it is added 
that there are twenty-one millions of widows 
condemned to lives of hardship and social dis- 
respect, the burdens laid upon womanhood 
may be interpreted from these figures. 

Then, again, the caste system, accompanied 
by what is known as the "zenana'^ system 
among the better classes, makes it impossible 
for any male missionary, whether foreign or 
Indian, to secure audience of womankind. 
The approach to woman in India must be by 
woman. Recognizing this, all the missionary 
bodies send selected and trained woman agents 
as their missionaries, to the secluded and 
oppressed women of India; and perhaps the 
brightest page written in the history of foreign 
missions is that which records the splendidly 
effective service of Christian women among 


their India sisters. With schools and hos 
pitals; with loving words and kindly deeds; 
with large sympathy and self-sacrificing toil, 
the woman missionary has approached the 
timid but responsive Indian ; and the trophies 
that have been won by the beauty and strength 
of these when trained in the Christian schools ; 
the loud-spoken gratitude of the patients in 
the hospitals and dispensaries ; and, in a word, 
the general impression made upon India at 
large by the tender ministry of women is a 
matter of glad recognition and cause for 
devout gratitude. 

When India finally bows with willing knees 
and loving heart before Jesus Christ her Lord, 
she will herself say that of all the ministries 
of grace that have reached her none has awak- 
ened in her such response of grateful love and 
tender affection as the service rendered by 
the woman missionaries. 

In these various ways the work of Christian 
missions goes forward in India, and, although 
the numerical response may not be very great 
— for there are but a scant three millions of 
Christians in India — nevertheless, upon the 
vision of millions of others outside of the 
Christian camp there silently rises the figure 
of Jesus Christ; and, as Baba Keshub Chun- 
der Sen said, many years ago in his famous 


lecture, "What Does India Think of Christ?'- 
Christ has alread}^ captured tlie imagination 
of India. Thousands of her brightest sons and 
daughters secretly bow to his name, and hun- 
dreds of thousands are moving steadily into 
the camp, in spite of the oppositions of hoary 
Hinduism and the competition of militant 
Mohammedanism. It is not an idle dream to 
suppose that the Indian church will number 
its converts by tens of millions in the next half 

The ethical and religious foundations of the 
Christian community are secured, and if the 
church will recognize this day of opportunity 
and double its efforts among these lowly 
people, who consist of agriculturists and 
artisans, and are, therefore, the backbone of 
the working classes of India, there is no reason 
why a few years of intelligent effort might not 
bring millions of converts into the Christian 
Church. This would lead at once to a marked 
rise in the social and economic level of India. 

India, with her deep spiritual insight, her 
glowing spiritual nature, her steadfast re- 
ligious loyalty, is a great prize to be won. And 
my earnest word to you, young men and 
women who hear me, is that no finer invest- 
ment can be made of your rich young lives 
than to place them on the altar of sacrifice 


for Indians redemption. You will find it a 
task worthy of your powers, a career worthy 
of the investment of the best you have. 

India for Christ, Christ for India — and 
you, and such as you, to bring this to pass ! 





A DISTINCT feature of the present religious 
conditions of India calls for a little more 
thorough discussion than has yet been given it. 
To place it in its proper setting, I return to 
the caste system. This system in its begin- 
ning was probably caused by the settling of 
successive waves of conquering peoples in 
lands from which the original inhabitants 
were not driven out. These later comers from 
the North were lighter-skinned and more 
highly civilized. The earlier inhabitants, 
dark-skinned from centuries of exposure to 
tropical suns, were massed in the lower castes. 
It is probable that later, in both these sections, 
the various occupations of the people became 
first trade guilds, and that these were finally 
hardened into distinct caste lines. 

In the skillful hands of the Brahman priest- 
hood from these elements a social pyramid 
was built, and this structure, cemented by 
priestly prescription, has continued through 
the millenniums and has set and grown firmer 
with the passage of time. 

One hears, too, of "the outcaste," but it would 


be difficult to say where the lowest caste ends 
and where the range of "the outcaste" begins ; 
for even among the lowliest of the outcastes 
there are still subdivisions. Among these, 
lowest in the religious and social esteem of the 
country at large, are two very numerous sec- 
tions — the sweepers and the chamars. The 
sweepers are supposed to do the dirty, menial 
work of the villages and towns, and are to be 
found in small village settlements just outside 
of the boundaries of the villages of the higher 
caste. The chamars were primarily workers in 
leather, but are now men doing rough labor of 
all kinds, including work in the fields. Of 
these low-castes, or outcastes, there are prob- 
ably over fifty million that are, after some 
vague fashion, counted among the Hindus, 
though they are scarcely within the pale. 

It is regarding the Christian movement 
already begun among these, and the amazing 
possibilities that lie before the Christian 
Church in this connection, that I speak, quot- 
ing largely from a careful outlook on the sub- 
ject written by Mr. Thomas S. Donohugh, 
district superintendent of the Meerut District 
in India, in which several millions of these 
people are found, from among whom some 
thirty-five thousand have been gathered into 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


lu tlie earlier years of the Christian effort 
in India Christian work was attempted chiefly 
amon*^ the higher castes. These were mon^ 
intelligent and accessible, and the presump- 
tion was that if these were won to Chris- 
tianity, they w^ould afford a lea<lership under 
which tJie masses of the others would easily be 
won. All manner of missions, therefore, were 
opened, principally among these higher castes. 
Particularly in the school systems which were 
devised was large place given to them, and 
in this manner the evangelistic propaganda 
was carried on among them. The results, how- 
ever, have been comparatively poor in outer 
ways. The higher castes are so markedly 
under the pressure of the caste system that 
the individual finds almost insuperable diffi- 
culties in asserting himself over against the 
community. The whole weight of the family 
and of all the leaders of the caste is merci- 
lessly exercised against the individual who 
seeks, in any open way, to follow his own 
beliefs and the dictates of his own conscience. 
Individualism is practically impossible and is 
abhorrent to the Hindu mind. It would seem 
that it was almost by accident that the Meth- 
odist mission turned away from the tra- 
ditional method of carrying on missions to 
pay particular attention to these humbler 


classes that are found at the bottom of Indian 
society. When this was done it was found 
that the gospel, according to its historic pre- 
cedent, had for the poor such charm and power 
as it has never found among the masses of 
the higher caste. Among these lower castes, 
even the brief experience that has been had 
has taught the missionaries not so much to 
seek the individual but the family through 
the individual, and then the related families 
through the family ; the idea being, that while 
it is harder to dig a single brick out of a wall, 
when the wall is breached it is possible to take 
out whole layers of bricks with comparative 
ease. This saves the individual from bitter 
persecution, makes it possible for Christian 
converts, by their very numbers, in any 
locality to defend themselves from ostracism 
and from loss of means of livelihood and en- 
courages the feebler spirits to move with the 
stronger. Such movements, once begun in any 
caste, tend to spread widely along that caste, 
for the very cohesion of the caste itself makes 
it easier to spread the movement within caste 

"If an entrance is secured into a second 
caste, that also may gather large proportions. 
In this way several movements, each distinct, 
may be proceeding at the same time. One 


caste is not likely to influence another except 
in the case of a higher branch encouraging 
a lower, or, where many castes are being 
affected simultaneously, and the movement 
toward Christianity is becoming general. 
Sometimes it is difficult to press two move- 
ments in the same village at the same time, 
because, in the early stages, it is hard for 
the people to forget ancient customs and 
strictly drawn lines, although these fade away 
later under careful leadership and especially 
under spiritual development. 

"As long, however, as a movement is con- 
fined to one caste Christianity is apt to be 
considered as a matter of that caste only. It 
is, therefore, of very great value to have two 
or more movements proceeding simultane- 
ously. The one-caste stigma is thus removed 
and the universal element of Christianity 
becomes manifest. Growth now becomes more 
rapid. In one circuit, soon after the second 
caste was entered, inquirers were reported 
from different castes, while in a near-by sec- 
tion baptisms were reported in one year from 
twenty-seven different castes. There is always 
a possibility of a mass movement starting in 
each caste thus entered. Wise leadership is 
required and generous aid in the beginning 
of each separate movement, as small numbers 


can do little in supporting the Avorker, though 
trained to give from the beginning. 

"In the United Provinces, where the mass 
movement s-tarted among the sweepers, it was 
looked down upon by others; but, when the 
chamars began to come in large numbers, and 
it was seen that they were open to Chris- 
tian work, attention was concentrated upon 
them. Wherever they come out openly the 
one-caste stigma is removed, as stated, and 
the w^ay is opened for general work as never 
before. It is in this connection that the real 
influence of the chamar movement in our mis- 
sion is seen; also the reason why it has had 
general attention. It is the next stepping- 
stone to a greatly widened work, aside from 
the fact that it concerns one of the greatest 
castes in North India, second only in numbers 
to the Brahmans. Being essentially a labor 
class, it has the largest possibilities, though 
now many chamars are little better than 

It will be of interest to learn how such 
movements as these are started : 

"The actual work of beginning a mass move- 
ment is by opening preaching and village 
schools among those who seem most respon- 
sive. In the earliest stages active opposition 
may be met and a hearing be refused, even 


with insulting and threatening conduct. 
Patient endeavor brings the people to the 
point of willingness to listen to the message, 
then to the stage of interest, then to belief in 
the truth of Christianity, then to conviction 
of its superiority over the old faith, and, 
finally, to the point of acceptance in place of 
the old, though it may mean persecution, hard- 
ship, and suffering even unto death. 

"There are those who condemn what they 
call ^too early baptism.' It may well be in- 
quired whether, in the nature of the case, a 
mass of ignorant, degraded people could be 
asked to come further than is indicated abovc^ 
before cutting themselves off from the old ties. 
The steps are all long ones and the results of 
much hard work. When, finally, a man says, 
^I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God 
and the Saviour of the world, and I Avant to 
be baptized,' we believe we should accept him, 
provided we are able to guarantee continu- 
ation of the teaching, so that he shall be led 
on to more and more knowledge and to a real 
spiritual faith." 

No severity of tests can ever be laid upon 
such people, for it is not so much what they 
know concerning the actual letter of the 
religion which attracts them, but the attitude 
of mind whicli permits a man who has been 


brought up under the fear and oppression of 
the older system when he dares to renounce 
the past and to venture himself, with whatever 
trembling of heart and slender illumination of 
mind, upon the new path that opens to his 

This is why among these lower castes it is 
considered best not to baptize single indi- 
viduals save in unusual cases. "When a man 
becomes ready, he is asked to prepare his 
family and then to prepare others in his vil- 
lage. If possible, one waits until several 
families, or, it may be, all of the caste in that 
village are ready. This insures solidarity; 
helps to drive out idolatry at once ; to prevent 
factions and strife; to give added strength in 
time of persecution from the outside, and to 
insure more rapid progress without interrup- 
tion. Before taking the step the inquirers 
are likely to talk with their relatives in neigh- 
boring villages who may become interested, as 
previously noted, or who may object and suc- 
ceed in stopping the work already begun. In 
all such cases the worker strives to explain 
the meaning of baptism and of Christianity 
to all who are concerned, to minimize oppo- 
sition, and to exhort his inquirers to hold firm. 
This is not very difficult when once the move- 
ment has gained strength, although, in the 


first instances, much ignorant prejudice must 
be allayed. Wise leadership, perseverance, 
and true Christian courtesy go a long way in 
meeting all problems and tiding over all diffi- 

Such movements as these spread and devel- 
op by well-ascertained and steadily worked 

"We begin with the group of few or many 
families usually living on the outer side of a 
village. Nearby are groups of high or low- 
caste people, each closely associated. The 
worker formerly lived among his people; but 
now that the sphere of the worker is widening, 
wisdom suggests that the worker live suffi- 
ciently apart so as to be accessible to all. In 
many cases the request for this change has 
come from high-caste Hindus or Mohamme- 
dans, who wish us to locate the worker where 
they, too, may associate with him and benefit 
by his teaching. Being unable to read, they 
are entirely dependent upon the visits of the 
worker. He gathers them at some convenient 
hour and proceeds to conduct a simple preach- 
ing service. The people sing well when taught 
and take part in prayer and testimony. When- 
ever possible a school is opened for the chil- 
dren and such older persons as wish to learn. 
They learn the Ten Commandments, the Lord's 


Prayer, The Apostles' Creed, the Catechism, 
Gospel hymns. Scripture verses, etc. The aim 
is to teach as many as possible to read the 
Bible. Everyone who learns to do so becomes 
a possible assistant in instructing the local 
Christians and other residents. Village school 
Avork is also the opening wedge in the further 
education of the more promising young people 
gathered in the centers. 

"The above work may seem very inadequate, 
but it is simply impossible to appreciate the 
effect of such teaching until one knows the 
life in a village. To impress undisciplined and 
superstitious minds with the simple prohibi- 
tions of the Commandments and the wondrous 
petitions of the Lord's Prayer is to strike at 
the very foundation of the old life of evil, of 
uncontrolled desire, of superstition, and of 
despair. A new life is revealed and made 
clear by the explanations of the preacher, who 
endeavors to exemplify it in his care of the 
sick, of the oppressed, and the dying. In this 
way many thousands are led into real spiritual 
life, to conscious touch with God in Christ, 
and to a moral life far above the ordinary level 
and often to irreproachable conduct. 

"A still larger opportunity is afforded by 
the children who may be educated sufficiently 
to make them far more useful in their occupa- 


tion, more intellifi^ent in their understandinjr 
of the Christian life, and more helpful in the 
cause. In the future there will be a far 
greater use of the humble volunteer worker 
of the village, and the more he can be taught 
in childhocKl in the village school the better. 

"The more striking development comes 
through higher education. Selected boys and 
girls are encouraged to attend the boarding 
schools, where they are taught to the extent 
their intellects warrant. In some cases vil- 
lage children can go only to the third or 
fourth class, while others may rise to the 
sixth, to high school, or even to college. But 
even those who cannot go much higher do most 
valuable work and fully repay the effort 
made for them, w^hile it is usual to find that 
their children can go much higher, and that, 
by the third or fourth generation any inherent 
intellectual weaknesses are removed. ^lanual 
training is particularly useful in teaching the 
awkward boy and girl to use the hand and eye 
together, in overcoming the common prejudice 
against manual labor, and in developing self- 
reliance and initiative.'' 

Meanwhile the children themselves unwit- 
tingly carry on a most effective leavening of 
their families through the mind of the child, 
and from his lips all manner of new ideas and 


simple teachings enter these humble homes, 
and many a happy Christian family in India 
to-day bears witness to the truth of the words, 
"A little child shall lead them.'' 

A large proportion of the boys and girls 
educated in our middle schools go out into the 
village work where they become leaders, not 
only among the Christians, but among the 
high-caste people as well. 

"Frequently the best educated people in the 
village, careful about their attire and the 
cleanliness of their houses, setting such a 
marked example in their home life, especially 
in the position of their wives, these Christian 
young men are doing a noble work and, 
where they are earnest, true, and humble as 
well, they can approach all classes with excel- 
lent effects, even though their origin is known 
to be from the lowest castes. 

"After some years of testing, the more 
promising among them are sent to the theo- 
logical seminaries for higher training, while 
all are required to take the excellent courses 
of study arranged for all grades of workers 
in our church, and their advancement in scale 
depends on their progress in the said courses. 
Normal training is being introduced. Medi- 
cal schools (particularly for women) are pro- 
vided and other provision is made from time 


to time, as the j^rowinji^ nee<l.s of the com 
munitv and the funds in hand jxTmit." 

From these schools, too, the future Chris- 
tian leaders of the people come. 

"The value of higher schools can hardly be 
overestimated. The contrast to the ordinary 
life in the village, created by these schools, is 
beyond description. Boys and girls are intro- 
duced to a life approximating that in a Chris- 
tian laud, in which they spend years and dur- 
ing which their whole outlook is changed. It 
is not an overstatement to say that this is the 
most thorough method of evangelization, for 
until we have far more and better-equipped 
pastors, adequately supervised, we cannot 
hope to elevate the people in the villages 
sufificiently to give them what the boys and 
girls get in our schools; that is, a true con- 
ception of the Christian life under Christian 
surroundings and control. In the schools we 
lay foundations similar to those known in the 
West. Here we can make an appeal to the 
child for a full and intelligent surrender of 
the will and a dedication to Christian service. 
Here we can do individual work of an ade- 
quate nature and with satisfying results — and 
all these at a cost averaging twenty dollars per 
year per child! 

"The notable revival of 1906 spread largely 


through the boarding schools. Hundreds of 
boys and girls entered into a new spiritual 
life. Workers of this type can carry high 
ideals into the villages and lead the Christians 
there into larger experiences. A notable fact 
about the revival was the profound conviction 
of sin, the lack of which heretofore has been 
a source of the greatest anxiety to many mis- 
sionaries in India. Consequently, we look 
forward hopefully to the time when these who 
have had deep religious experiences and who 
have the consciousness of pardon of sin will 
be able to go out to lead others into similar 
experiences. This is an illustration of the 
way in which the boarding school constantly 
proves the training ground for higher ideals 
and purer moral life.'' 

In later mass movements it is being dis- 
covered that the hereditary local leaders, who 
have been, in some sense, the political and eco- 
nomic fathers of their people, are the key-men 
in the religious situation also. The Christian 
movement has already spread sufficiently to 
catch the attention of these leaders, and in a 
remarkable way many of them are most ear- 
nest inquirers after Christianity, and many 
are the reports that come of these Chaudharis, 
accompanied by bands of their people, who 
come to the missionaries from remote parts 


begging for Christian teaching and that 
teacher-preachers be sent to their villages. 
When the Chaudharis themselves become 
Christians they are often volunteer workers 
and, under such leadership, the local move- 
ments grow to great proportions. 

The simplest methods of supervision and 
training are being pursued, and the humble 
native preachers, after passing through the 
elementary schools, in which they are care- 
fully taught the Scriptures, hymns, and the 
art of expression — an art which India does not 
find it hard to acquire — are then set to work 
and, once a year, they are called together to 
the District Conference. The District Confer- 
ence is not merely an ecclesiastical assembly, 
but it is a training school of methods. Her(* 
for several days the trained, ordained native 
ministers from the theological schools and the 
American missionaries divide the workers, 
men and women, into groups; and these 
groups are drilled in special portions of Scrip- 
ture and in such other simple books as may be 
available. New hymns are learned, programs 
of work prepared, and, with it all, daily reli- 
gious meetings of marked spiritual power 
refresh the soul and invigorate the zeal of all 
assembled. When, at the end of from eight 
or ten days to a month, the District Confer- 


enee and Bible school break up, the workers 
have all been prepared and stimulated for the 
next year's campaign. Between the intervals 
of these Conferences the itinerating native 
minister and the foreign district superintend- 
ent, at regular intervals, usually quarterly, 
touch the humble men at their work, resolve 
their difficulties, straighten out the tangles, 
and give new inspiration to the work in gen- 
eral. It is almost incredible to learn the areas 
over which a single superintendent is thus 
enabled to spread himself and yet keep mat- 
ters on the whole moving with effectiveness 
and satisfaction. 

What promise does the future of these mass 
movements hold? 

The following outcomes have been repeat- 
edly demonstrated : 

"1. That, according to the faith of the lead- 
ers at the time of acceptance, practically all 
who were received have stood firm. 

"2. That there has been a steady rise in the 
community, usually in proportion to the in- 
vestment of missionary effort. 

"3. That where, through hesitation or lack 
of equipment, further advance was interfered 
with, those who were ready to come have not 
only gone back but have tried to exert hurtful 
influences upon those previously received. 


^*l. That ill most sections tlicrc li;is been uo 
innrked mass movement following!: the stop- 
ping of one which was under way; that is, 
those who were received have stood firm with 
their children, hut the movement stopped. 

"The interest among the classes previously 
referred to is at its highest point in the terri- 
tory covered by the Meerut, Roorkee, Delhi, 
and Punjab Districts of the Northwest India 
Conferences, where the calls for instruction 
and baptism exceed anything previously ex- 
perienced. The force of workers is pressed 
to the breaking point, particularly the mis- 
sionaries, several of whom have given way 
under the strain. The advancement, duo 
largely to the possibility of securing special 
gifts, has rested chiefly upon the efforts of the 
missionary bishops and missionaries, adding 
to their labors and anxieties, as well as to 
their opportunities. There has been almost no 
increase of appropriation nor of the mission- 
ary force, notwithstanding the rapid growth 
of the work. Now the future seems to depend 
upon such reinforcements as will relieve the 
overburdened workers and rapidly produce 
large numbers of native assistants to enter the 
widening and rapidly ripening fields. Could 
a million converts be gathered in a compact 
territory in a few years (which seems only a 


question of investment), a profound influence 
would be exerted upon all the people. The 
remaining fifty million of the outcastes would 
be even more accessible throughout all India, 
and the largest victory yet won in the evan- 
gelization of that or any similar land would 
be in sight." 

Such a movement as this is now on in full 
strength within the boundary of the North- 
west India Conference. The perplexity is to 
know how to deal with it with the present 
stationary income of the Board of Foreign 

A movement of this character is very much 
to be desired at this time, because of the 
awakening among the Hindus and Mohamme- 
dans, who, seeing the great mass of the low 
caste moving toward Thristianity, have begun 
to make most earnest attempts to stifle that 
movement. For though, by priestly insolence 
and a social conspiracy, these people are 
termed "low caste" or "outcaste," "they are 
in reality the Jahorers of India, and, in point 
of fact, probably potentially the most valuable 
asset in the land. The higher castes have an 
assured position, which they will not relin- 
quish easily, while these will enter into new 
occupations, become trained artisans, adapt 
themselves to new conditions, meet new needs, 


and, especially as Christians, Ix' the persons 
who will most surely bring about the modifica- 
tions essential to the d(»velopment of Indian 

"It will be seen there are strong reasons 
why w^e should aim to secure the whole of any 
cla*ss and train them together. The increased 
numbers make self-support more practicable 
where it is now^ difficult because of the poverty 
of the little groups scattered here and there. 
A united community would more speedily 
adopt Christian customs and escape from the 
tyranny of old ties ; the danger of part of the 
class turning back and stopping or injuring 
the old movement is largely averted; the rate 
of advance would be increased by the removal 
of obstructions, also by the numbers of nota- 
ble cases of great evangelists and other 
leaders now^ too few; the larger number 
would exert more influence as a community; 
be better able to stand alone, to realize their 
strength and to use it in such a way as to 
exemplify their Christian teaching and stand- 
ards; and the movement would encourage the 
many thousands of heart Christians among 
the higher classes to come out openly and 
throw^ in their lot with all the possibilities of 
larger and more far-reaching movements thus 
thrown open. 


"The attitude of the people may be made 
clear by one or two illustrations : In one dis- 
trict a man who could not be used as a worker 
was lost sight of for a time, after which he 
came to the district superintendent and told 
him that six hundred people were ready for 
baptism in his village. The district superin- 
tendent found them remarkably well taught, 
and sent for Bishop Warne, who was fully 
convinced of their sincerity and who baptized 
them. This same man had brought the leaders 
of several other village groups who were also 
encouraged to do likewise. A most promising 
movement is under way.'' 

Again, in another province, two thousand 
miles from the one already named, a Christian, 
who was disciplined for some wrongdoing by 
temporary ostracism from the Lord's Supper, 
took offense and moved away to a new terri- 
tory several miles distant. Here, however, 
repenting of the wrong he had done, but either 
ashamed or unable to return to his own vil- 
lage, he settled down among distant relatives 
and was soon heading a Christian movement 
in connection with another denomination from 
his own, which seems to be a movement of 
marked struggle and deep sincerity, attended 
with marked results. 

The methods of these mass movements are 


constantly improving, and the new forces now 
being liberated, the fashion in which they are 
being used, and the results of the movements, 
so far as they can be reckoned, are described 
by Bishop Warne, who huH had, perhaps, as 
good an opportunity to study them as any 
man in India, in the following words : 

"The mass movement has been giong on in 
various forms in our mission for over twenty 
years, but is now taking on some new and, I 
think, improved methods, and concerning 
these and the condition and suffering of the 
people I wish to Avrite. 

''The greater use of the chaudhari is, in my 
judgment, an improved method. The chaud- 
hari is the headman of a muhalla, or section 
of a city or village, in which people of the 
same caste reside. Making special use of the 
chaudhari is an advance effort to use unpaid 
laymen. Their special work is to so interest 
the non-Christians in their muhallas in the 
Christian religion as to get them to forsake 
idolatry and become ready to embrace Chris- 
tianity, and to take all this preliminary work 
from the missionaries and Indian preachers, 
and place the villagers in the hands of the 
missionaries and workers as incjuirers. Is not 
this a tremendous saving of the time of the 
mission force over the old method? 


"One day I was waiting on the roadside for 
an ekka and talking with one of the Indian 
preachers, and I asked, ^What kind of work 
do the chaudharis do?' There was near by a 
carpenter making a cart-wheel, and the 
preacher called the carpenter to him and said, 
^Do you go out into the jungle and cut the 
trees and prepare the wood for your cart?' 
He replied: ^No, untrained men do that. I 
work the wood up into furniture and carts, a 
work that untrained men cannot do.' Then 
the preacher turned to me and said: That is 
what the chaudharis do. They get the people 
out of the jungle of heathenism and bring 
them to us to be trained as Christians.' I 
am glad to say that now, in addition to that, 
some of the chaudharis are able to do some 
of the training, and to hold daily religious 
services in their villages, and to act as stewards 
and gather the offerings of the people. It is 
remarkable that this preparatory work is 
often done by chaudharis who are themselves 
not yet baptized; that is, they do not baptize 
a chaiidhari until he has prepared the people 
of his village for baptism, and they are all 
baptized together. 

^^Stricter conditions before baptism^ is, it 
seems to me, another improved method. I was 
impressed anew that baptism makes a com- 


plete revolution in the life of even the humblest 
villai^er. In my opinion, until one comes to 
the mission field, and, perhaps, I mi<?ht better 
say, the Indian mission field, one does not 
know the full sij^nificance of baptism. The 
following conditions I saw imposed before any 
were baptized : 

"1. In new rniihallas no one was baptized 
until the whole mnhalla was baptized, and this 
was being held to rigidly. To illustrate: I 
started with Mr. Wilson one day to go to a 
village where over two hundred were supposed 
to be ready for baptism. It is the custom for 
the mimshi who prepares the candidates to 
have their names all carefully written out by 
families before the time set for baptizing. In 
this particular case, when the munshi came to 
write out the names, he found two men among 
the two hundred who had two wives, and he 
sent word to meet us by the way. The district 
superintendent at once sent back word to the 
village that we would not come to baptize 
them until they had straightened all this out, 
and threw the whole responsibility back upon 
the chaudhari and the villagers themselves. 
This idea has so spread through the district 
that now no chmidhari thinks of asking to 
have his people baptized until such cleaning 
up has been completed. 


"2. All the shrines have to be torn down 
and the symbols of idolatry destroyed before 
anyone in a muhalla is baptized, and these 
shrines are torn down by the people them- 
selves. It was interesting to see Mr. Wilson 
cut off every chutia, and to see Mrs. Wilson 
examine the hands and necks of the women 
and children and have them give up every 
charm and every symbol of idolatrous worship 
before they were baptized. 

"3. The chaudharis were required to promise 
for the muhalla, and each individual for him- 
self, that the shrines would not be rebuilt and 
that there would be no more heathen rites or 
worship in the muhalla. 

"4. Each individual was definitely asked 
before receiving baptism, ^Do you cheerfully 
accept baptism, and promise to obey and 
receive Jesus Christ as your Saviour?' The 
uniform answer was, ^Khushi se/ that is, 

"5. Each one was expected to have a clear 
understanding of what the fundamentals of 
the Christian religion are, and to receive 
Jesus Christ as a personal Saviour. 

"6. Another question was asked uniformly, 
'Are you willing to suffer persecution?' This 
was asked with a very clear understanding 
that persecution was inevitable, and I did not 


find one but what was ready, in face of certain 
persecutions, to answer, ^Yes, I will endure 
persecution.' Mr. Wilson tells of one instance 
when he baptized a muhaJla, while the zemin- 
dars and others stood around and said to the 
people, ^You owe us money, and if you are 
baptized, we will persecute you until every 
pice is paid.' Y''et in the face of that the 
people went right ahead and were baptized in 
the presence of their persecutors. 

"7. Another question regularly asked was, 
*Will you give toward self-support?' The 
reply was always ^l^es.' It has become a cus- 
tom to ask that converts promise to give a 
minimum of one anna per month per family, 
and when this was explained I never heard 
one object. In one village when we were 
about to baptize them after asking this ques- 
tion, they said, ^Will we not be permitted to 
give more?' In a number of places I found 
that non-baptized muhaUas had been doing 
this for months, and in several cases they had 
already' paid three months in advance. 

^'What it costs these people to 'become Chris- 
tians. 1. It always costs ostracism from many 
former associations and relatives. 

"2. There is no profit to the first generation 
except what Christianity naturally brings. 
Doubtless the people expect special advan- 


tages to come to their children. Is uot that a 
praiseAVorthy motive? 

"3. Persecution is inevitable and not an idle 
tale. Our hearts were wrung; everywhere we 
found these poor Christians with the sad story 
of their persecution. I can never forget one 
village where I met a company of about fifty 
Christians. I learned that after their baptism 
they had been persecuted to such an extent 
that they had fled from their homes. After 
they had gone the people in the village were 
in great difficulty without them and went and 
pleaded with them to return, and gave them 
many promises, which were not kept after 
their return. We held the meeting in the 
mulialla, and a hundred yards away was the 
great village well, with a crowd of people of 
the other castes drawing water. At the close 
of the meeting the Christians threw them- 
selves upon the ground liath jorJcar, and said, 
^Please do something to get us water.' It was 
about three o'clock in the afternoon, the shim- 
mering heat was terrible, and yet these people, 
right in sight of the fresh water, were refused 
it and could get w^ater only out of a filthy 
tank. Yet not one of them suggested the idea 
of giving up their religion, though they were 
promised water if they would. Mr. Wilson 
tells of a man that was so beaten that his face 


was cut open and lie almost lost his eye, yet 
when Mr. Wilson askcnl him, ^Are you sorry 
you became a Christian?' he replie<l : ^No, since 
I have heard what ( 'hrist suffered for me, and 
what the early Christians suffered, I am ready 
to go to death. But I am not ready to give 
up my faith in Christ. I can only live a little 
while in this world, but in the next world T 
shall live forever.' This answ^er suggests how 
truly these simple people get hold of the real 
spiritual ideas of Christianity. The persecu- 
tion consists in closing to them the village 
wells, beating, and the taking, without pay, 
the hens and eggs, which means as much to 
these people as it would to a farmer at home 
being robbed of his farm stock. I saw one 
set of villagers who kept goats to supplement 
their income, who told that after their baptism 
the grazing land for their goats was taken 
from them and they were forced to sell their 
goats at a nominal price, and cut in two their 
meager income. When asked if they retali- 
ated, they said, ^No; Jesus teaches us to 
endure and not to retaliate, and we held our 
ears lest we should break his commandments 
and say something we ought not to say w^hen 
we were thus being persecuted.' " 

I now raise two questions of interest and 
importance : First, What are the motives which 


cliiefl}^ influence these masses in the movement 
toward Christianity? And, second, What is 
the effect upon the higher castes whose atten- 
tion has been strongl}- riveted upon these 
lower-caste people's doings for the past ten 

I make no doubt that the hope of social 
emancipation and of bettering their economic 
condition are both motives that powerfully 
appeal to the submerged people. Chris-tianity, 
in its social interpretation, is a democracy. 
Character, and not either birth or inherited 
privilege, is its standard of measurement. 
There is in it also a ceaseless thrust toward 
affording equality of opportunity, so far as 
possible, to all men. In these regards it is 
ceaselessly at war with the native selfishness 
of our defective humanity. It has nowhere 
succeeded in working out its program to the 
full, but it is everywhere ceaselessly and rest- 
lessly seeking to do so. Wherever progress in 
these directions is being made it is under the 
stimulation of the Christian spirit and by the 
teaching of the Christian faith. The silent ap- 
peal of such a religion to the submerged castes 
of India can readily be appreciated. These 
mud-sills of the centuries are actually invited 
to believe that they also are of the same hu- 
man stuff as the men of the highest castes; 


thai lliey, too, aro so related to the Ood of tlic 
heaveus and of the eartli that they are heirs of 
all his <i;lorious universe and joint heirs with 
Jesus Christ, their Saviour and Lord. They 
learn that, according to this religion, a man's 
worth is measured by his moral quality and 
his powers of self-mastery and intelligent vic- 
tory over the nature forces that operate 
around him. And that this victory may be 
achieved by knowledge, discipline, and ear- 
nestness of endeavor. In a word, that he may 
be a man among men by the power of his own 
sustained effort and the blessings of his 
Father God. 

The movement has been in operation long 
enough to show many sons and daughters 
of the lowliest origin, now taking their places 
in occupations and professions which call for 
a high measure of education, but Avhich for 
thousands of years have been usurped entirely 
by the higher castes. 

This, however, is not a complete explana- 
tion, or even in any large sense an explanation 
at all of the real motive powder that is at work. 
This is stated better by Bishop Warne and by 
Dr. T. S. Wynkoop, whom I have recently 
interview^ed. Says the former: 

"What is the motive that leads these people 
to forsake all, suffer much, and endure with 


out retaliation? There is unrest in India, 
but the desire for social betterment, of the 
education of their children, for which there is 
no promise given, and for improving their 
financial condition will not explain it. The 
only thing that will explain this mass move- 
ment is spiritual hunger. I overheard two 
new converts talking and one said, ^My rela- 
tives say to me that I became a Christian to 
get food/ The other replied, ^Yes; spiritual 
food,' and the first responded, 'That's it; yes, 
that's it — spiritual food.' This meant much 
to me, as I knew both of them were suffering 
intense persecution at that very time. After 
asking many, 'Why do you accept Christianity 
and persecution?' the answer unanimously is, 
^Najat ki liye/ that is, 'For salvation.' An- 
other strong evidence that this is true is the 
fact that the movement spreads most rapidly 
only where there is a true spiritual life among 
the workers who are the leaders of the move- 
ment, and dies down where there is not. There- 
fore, we conclude that there is no explanation 
except that it is a genuine spiritual move- 

The Rev. T. S. Wynkoop, missionary of the 
American Presbyterian Church in Allahabad, 
India, during the years 1868-1876, enjoying 
the friendship of Bishop Thobum, Bishop 


Parker, Dr. Hoskins, Dr. Mansell, and other 
Methodist missionaries, and their active co- 
operation as Honorary Secretary of the 
North India Tract Society in the formative 
period of the Methodist Episcopal Mission in 
North India, and for the last twenty years — 
1893-1912— agent of the British and Forei^ni 
Bible Society in North India at Allahabad, 
has known the missionaries and prominent 
Indian Christians of the three Conferences — 
North India, Northwest India, and Central 
India — and has been in close touch with them, 
personally and officially, all these years. As 
Agent of the Bible Society he has had unique 
opportunities of acquaintance with the field 
and with the agencies of the various missions 
engaged in North India. Replying to a ques- 
tion of the Rev. Doctor Oldham, "What is 
your estimate of the reported mass movements 
toward Christianity in North India?'' he said : 

"I look upon these mass movements as the 
most promising feature of mission work at 
present, and the one that makes the most im- 
perative demand upon our immediate atten- 

"Hitherto, in most missions much the larger 
expenditure, both of men and of money, has 
been devoted to the higher education of non- 
Christian students, planned to inculcate the 


principles of the Christian religion Avhile pre- 
paring the young men for the examinations in 
secular courses of study prescribed by the gov- 
ernment of India. Besides the educational, 
various forms of evangelistic effort have been 
carried on, including a wide dissemination of 
religious literature, in which a foremost place 
has been given to the circulation of the Holy 

"These educational and literary appeals, 
including medical and humanitarian efforts, 
have profoundly affected the upper section of 
Indian life. The net result, however, may be 
very largely described as having produced an 
educated community which does not propose 
to accept the Christian faith, but desires 
rather to reform the Hindu and Moslem re- 
ligious systems, importing the ethical and 
humanitarian principles of Christianity into 
the visible life of these existing religions. 

"While these lines of mission work have not 
resulted in the building up of a considerable 
Christian community connected with the mis- 
sions of the Protestant churches (two thirds 
of Indian Christians reported in the census 
of 1911 were Roman Catholics and Syrians), 
in the providence of God and under the impulse 
of the Holy Spirit a movement toward the 
Christian faith has developed among large 


communities of ludiaii peasantry and other 
classes outside of and outcasted by the caste 
system of Indian social and reli<»ious life. In 
certain parts of India this moviniient has 
already added lar^e numbers to tlie Christian 
Church, and if taken advanta*^e of l)y the mis- 
sions will, in the near future, add other lar^e 
numbers to the church in India. 

"Holding that the ingathering and upbuild- 
ing of the Christian Church is the first consid- 
eration of mission polity, it is submitted that 
this object, so far as at present appears, will 
not be accomplished through the higher educa- 
tion, but through the conversion of the out-of- 
caste communities which are now, over a con- 
siderable part of India, prepared to accept the 
gospel and enter the Christian Church. 

"No one who has not been in touch with 
these movements can appreciate the power of 
the gospel of Christ to purify and elevate — 
morally and socially^ — the despised outcastes 
and pariahs of the Hindu social system. One 
can point in all the missions of North India 
to men and women of the highest character, 
education, and ability, whose parents or 
grandparents were converts from one or other 
of these classes. 

"It should be noted that the term 'mass 
movement^ does not exactly express the con- 


ditions at present existing in parts of the 
North India mission field. The movement is 
not an endeavor on the part of considerable 
communities to better their social condition, 
but a response on the part of smaller groups 
of men and women, more or less united by ties 
of kindred and social relation, to the preach- 
ing of the gospel. And wherever the admis- 
sion of the converts is followed by Christian 
teaching and adequate pastoral care the result 
is a living Christian Church which furnishes 
one of the best possible evidences of the Chris- 
tian religion by its contrast to the communi- 
ties among whom it lives. 

"In corroboration of the views above stated, 
reference may be made : 

"1. To the present results, where the mis- 
sions have sought the conversion of the under- 
castes, the American Baptists of South India, 
the United Presbyterians in the Punjab, the 
Church Missionary Society and the Society 
for Propagating the Gospel in South India, 
and the Methodist Episcopal Missions in 
North and Northwest India. 

"2. To the recent entering on the same line 
of work by the American Presbyterians, and 
still more recently the English Church Mis- 
sionary Society in North India. 

"3. To the new appeal of Hindu and Mus- 


sulmau religious leaders, who are urging their 
coreligionists to organize effort for the eleva- 
tion of the outeastes, with the express inten- 
tion of stopping the movement toward Chris- 
tianity, an effort conducted largely on Chris- 
tian lines, preaching and instruction in Hindu 
or Mohammedan religion, schools for children 
of the outcastes, recognition of the rights of 
the outcastes as men and women, and help to 
reach better manhood." 

The effect of these movements upon the 
higher caste is twofold: First. It is moving 
them to something like an earnest effort to 
stem the tide that moves Christian^vard, by 
endeavoring to soften the rigidity of the lines 
that separate between the castes. No great 
progress has been made in this direction, for 
of all the prejudices that animate mankind 
none is more subtle nor persistent than the 
aristocratic feeling which gives one class 
fancied superiority over other classes, and 
when, through centuries of superior advan- 
tage this superiority becomes real and not fan- 
cied, it is still more difficult to breed a demo- 
cratic temper. Ancient hauteurs and social 
disesteems will assert themselves and will not 
long brook curbing for mere political advan- 
tage. The difficulty is that Hinduism still 
believes that the differences are basal and not 


accidental, and no outer pretense goes far in 
hiding the proud persuasions of its inner 

Second. On the other hand, among the higli 
class are many noble souls, who are pro- 
foundly moved by the fact that Christianity 
does not affect a concern and a sympathy for 
these lower castes, but that these feelings are 
of its very essence. And they are perhaps 
even more moved by the fact that many of 
these lower-caste people, when transplanted 
into the freer atmosphere of Christianity and 
afforded educational opportunities, develop 
such a strength of personality and ability for 
affairs as puts them in a single generation 
right alongside the choice spirits of the higher 

Speaking for the Methodists, I am well 
within the facts when I say that the oppor- 
tunity is to our hand to afford a tremendous 
demonstration of the power of Christianity to 
revolutionize these lower castes. It may safely 
be said that the investment of ten added mis- 
sionaries, with a budget of two thousand dol- 
lars apiece — outside of their support — and, 
say, fifty thousand for building equipment, 
will in the course of ten or twenty years 
gather one half million of these low-caste 
people into a strong, stable Christian com- 


muuity, which would at once challenge the 
concentrated religious attention of all India 
and make the greatest plea for the Chris- 
tiauization of the land that has yet been made. 
Speaking for a part of India which the Meth- 
odists have only recently touch(Hl by the mass 
movement. Bishop J. E. Robinson writes the 
following words: 

"In this Conference (South India) we are 
facing a tremendous situation. We are now 
tapping the three gi^eat vernaculars of the 
South, and a quite respectable ^trickle' from 
each gTeets us. Close on to thirty thousand 
MethodistvS — Telugu, Tamil, and Kanarese — 
look to us for guidance, for education, for 
spiritual care and development. Our present 
resources are not adequate, as you are well 
aware. But it is inevitable that this work 
shall spread and gather momentum with the 
passing years. It cannot he stopped! I have 
advocated putting on the brakes and doing 
intensive work, etc., and the secretaries follow 
suit and urge restriction of operations, etc., 
but the fact is that the cries of these dumb 
millions have entered into the ears of the Lord 
of Sabaoth and he has come down to visit and 
deliver them. The hour of their re<lemption 
draweth nigh. The Ransom has been pro- 
vided. The Redeemer has undertaken their 


cause, the ^Mighty to Save' is intent upon their 
emancipation. Coming now by thousands, 
these people Avill soon be coming by the hun- 
dred thousand. We cannot prevent them if 
we would. A divine impulse is impelling them. 
It overwhelms one to be face to face with the 
greatest Christward movements that have ever 
been witnessed on earth. Multiply or diminish 
the missionary force. God only knows what 
the outcome will be. 

"Personally, I look for a mighty extension 
of these mass movements among the higher 
castes, who are really more deeply moved than 
we are thinking. How infinitely pathetic it 
all is! China sending out its appeal to the 
Christian world to pray for it in its hour of 
great need! India stretching out its hands 
for guidance and help in this time of upheaval 
and aspiration ! 

"O that a mighty baptism of divine power 
might come upon the home church — upon the 
moneyed people, upon the ministers, upon the 
young people! I will neither ask nor expect 
the impossible from you; but do all you can 
to enable us to give these multiplied millions 
of oppressed people something approaching a 
chance for this world and the next, and the 
blessing of those ready to perish will be upon 






Malaysia <iiffoi's very markedly from India 
iu almost eyery reoard. It does not consist 
of a continuous land area approach inp^ conti- 
nental proportions, nor is its population homo- 
geneous, nor its civilization ancient; and it is 
not held under one political sway, nor can it 
be brought by any forces that appear in sight 
to a continuity of thought and aim. 

Malaysia consists of a peninsula in the 
southeast of Asia which points like a fore- 
finger straight down at the southern pole. 
From the tip of the finger, stretching south 
and east and then up northward in the form 
of a crescent, is the most wonderful throw of 
islands in all the world. Some of these are 
of great size, as Borneo, New Guinea, an<l 
Sumatra, while thousands of them are little 
green specks that dot the ocean. The entire 
land area is about one million square miles. 
The population is estimate*! at about sixty 
millions, of whom six millions are iu Sumatra 
and over thirty millions are packed into the 
island of Java, with its less than sixty thou- 
sand square miles of area, part of which are 


arid and untillable, being overcast with the 
slag of ancient volcanic outbursts. 

A pecular physical phenomenon of the 
archipelago is a line of fire which runs cres- 
cent-shaped through Sumatra, Java, the 
Celebes, and Borneo, up through the Philip- 
pines into Japan. Along this line of fire is 
found a succession of volcanoes, most of which 
are now quiescent, though some have, in 
recent years, as in the case of Krakatoa, in 
1883, wrought terrific destruction. On both 
sides of this line of fire are exceedingly rich 
and fruitful lands. Indeed, this whole coun- 
try, outside of Java, waits for population. 
Here the overflow of China and India will 
ultimately find rich and fertile lands which 
may easily sustain a population as large as 
that of India. For here the riches of the sea 
are added to the amazing productivity of the 
land ; and an unfailing rainfall and prevailing 
depth of soil make famine almost impossible 
and afford the physical base for a great and 
populous civilization. 

The earlier peoples of this archipelago may 
be divided roughly into two races — the 
Papuan, or Ocean Negrito, and the Malay. 

The former, barely removed from savagery, 
is found in the interior forests and at the head 
waters of the rivers. They are, for the most 


part, nomadic and live on scant harvests of 
rice, the wild fruits, and such wild animals a*s 
they are able to s(K*ure by th(^ use of their 
blowpipes and bows and arrows. Among 
these are the well-known head-hunting Dyaks, 
among whom the unpleasant custom obtains 
of gathering the heads of their enemies as 
highly treasured domestic possessions. These 
heads are usually preserved in open-meshed 
hammocks slung over the family fire. The 
ascending smoke continually keeps them cured 
and, in some dim way, their presence is sup- 
posed to gratify the fetish spirits of the elan, 
though concerning all these matters there is 
very little knowledge and only vague super- 
stition. It is true, however, that the taking 
of a number of heads is usually celebrated by 
tribal ceremonies which have in them much 
suggestion of placating evil influences, if not 
distinctive evil spirits. These poor people live 
their wild savage lives, killing and being 
killed, so that their numbers have always been 
decimated, except when they have come under 
the strong hand of some European govern- 
ment. They and peoples like them are found 
chiefly in the islands of Borneo, New Guinea, 
and Sumatra. Any severe regulation of their 
wild ways leads them to escape still farther 
into the untraveled interior. 


The Malay is a later comer and has a meas- 
ure of civilization and professes the Moslem 
faith. He, too, has not borne the best of names 
in English writings; but he is a better man 
than has been usually described. De Quincey, 
in his Confessions of an English Opium Eater, 
allowed his opium-laden brain to imagine a 
Malay of undesirable characteristics, and the 
pen of genius picturing this Malay has largely 
helped to fasten upon English readers their 
low estimate of the Malay character. The 
Malay is not the treacherous, bloodthirsty, 
and unreliable man he has been widely sup- 
posed to be, but, rather, he is a man of marked 
dignity, of great composure, and of grave, 
courteous manner. When angered he is 
capable of great passion and exercises the arts 
of all half-civilized people, in endeavoring to 
vindicate his honor and avenge an insult. He 
is quick with his knife and does not always 
observe the rules of civilized society ; but that 
he is a worse man than we were when at his 
stage of development can scarcely be main- 
tained. He is a devoted father, a reasonable 
husband, a faithful friend, but a very bitter 
enemy. His faults are the faults of the un- 
civilized ; his virtues are very largely his own. 
He is averse to laborious occupation and has 
no special ambition to acquire property; but 


this is because he lias lived for ;i thousand 
years in the mid-tropics, where nature is very 
bountiful. His wants are few, his tastes are 
simple, and a strenuous life is to him by no 
means inviting-. C'ontact with Western influ- 
ences, however, is greatly modifyini? these 
characteristics. Particularly under the Dutch 
sovereignty many Malays are acquiring a good 
education and are proving themselves capable 
of discharging the duties of responsible and 
delicate positions. All through the Malay 
world a new breath begins to blow of a grow- 
ing ambition to be counted among the progres- 
sive and working peoples of the human family. 
The agricultural development in Java, the 
skill shown in silver and bronze manufactures, 
and in the exquisite silk-weaving found in the 
sarongs, or women's cloths in Java, the ex- 
quisite chasing found in the krises and larger 
knives, made in many places of the archi- 
pelago, all go to show that when the Malay, 
more deeply move<l by attrition with other 
peoples, begins to awaken to the opportunities 
and responsibilities of life, he will make no 
mean member of the human family. 

Recent additions to the population of Ma- 
laysia have come from India and China. The 
Indian, for the most part, is a coolie or day 
laborer, and is used in the cultivation of rub- 


ber and the making of roads. A body of mer- 
chants and clerks from Ceylon and South 
India form a small percentage of the entire 
Indian immigration. 

The Chinese are chiefly from the southern 
provinces of China, and are a very valuable 
contribution to the economic and intellectual 
development of Malaysia. Physically more 
robust than the Indian, and commercially 
more alert than the Malay, and of more inde- 
pendent and venturesome spirit than either, 
the further development of these islands lies 
more with the Chinese than with any other. 
He it is who extracts the tin ore on the penin- 
sula. He mans the fishing fleets and the fleets 
of small trading steamers. He is the peddler 
and the storekeeper and, increasingly, he is 
the organizer of big business, extending com- 
merce into the farthest recesses of the moun- 
tains and along the most remote and inacces- 
sible shores. His organized skill and powers 
of combination make him a formidable rival 
to the Europeans; and yet his virile activity 
is doing more to develop the natural resources 
of these lands than any single factor that 
enters into the situation. 

Another large stream of immigration is 
from the Northeast. The Tamils are a people 
of South India — noisy, exceedingly talkative. 


faithful, devout, obedient to orders, and capa- 
ble of patiently bearinj}: much hardship. To 
them is given much of the agricultural labor 
of the land. They grow the sugar cane, the 
cocoanut, the areca nut, the pepper, and the 
rubber of the peninsula. Less enterprising 
than the Chinese, they are usually day labor- 
ers. Accompanied by their wives and children, 
they quickly settle down in any home provided 
for them, and in a brief space of time there is 
reproduced in Malaysia an exact miniature 
of an Indian village. On their first coming 
the ties of kindred and home are so vStrong 
upon them that they have a set purpose to 
return as soon as they have saved some money. 
But usually a few months in Malaysia per- 
suades them that no such wages and oppor- 
tunities for comfort are to be had in the con- 
gested motherland as in their emigrant home 
in the new land. Meanwhile the Malay, for 
the most part, cultivates his own rice fields, 
fishes along the shore of the sea or in the 
rivers, and keeps himself carefully secluded 
from all contact with any of these incoming 
strangers. Whether, in the end, he will be 
forced into greater activity to save himself 
from being wiped out entirely, remains to be 
seen. The old semisavag(^ lif(^ is gone forever. 
For the new order tlie Malay has mingled feel- 


ings. He likes tlie white man and trusts him. 
He is not unaware of the great imi^rovement 
in his own estate and of all the development 
that has come to his land; but he dislikes the 
intruding Asiatics, through whose labors these 
developments have been made possible. If, by 
any means, he could be induced or forced to 
undertake labor himself, it would greatly re- 
joice his English friends, and his own fate 
would be less in question. 

Politically, the archipelago is under many 
flags. The Malay Peninsula, with many of 
the surrounding islands and parts of Borneo 
and New Guinea, belongs to Great Britain. 
Holland has in Sumatra, Java, the Celebes, 
and many other neighboring islands a great 
Oriental possession, with a population ap- 
proaching fifty millions of people, many times 
outnumbering that of Holland itself. 

Germany owns a part of New Guinea, with 
the Caroline and some other of the islands. 
Under each of these flags nominal sovereignty 
over certain areas is still held by native chiefs 
and kings. In the British Malay Peninsula 
is to be found the Federated Malay States — 
perhaps the most perfect example of a kindly 
suzerainty, w^hich keeps at peace and admin- 
isters for proflt to the people and to their 
rulers several petty Malay kingdoms and sul- 


tanates. Whatever criticism may avail in 
other parts of the world, here there is no ques- 
tion that the ceaseless wars between these 
Malay kings were depopulating the land and 
making progress impossible. The British 
presence has produced the pax Britannica, and 
is making a glorious Oriental garden out of 
what was once a wilderness, dotted with mur- 
derous tribes. In this peninsula seven tenths 
of all this world's tin is mined, and here, in 
recent years, thousands of acres of Brazilian 
rubber have been planted. 

Under the Dutch flag the most notable 
island is Java, which, in its narrow confines, 
to feed a vast population, is cultivated with 
a skill which is unexcelled in all the East. 
Wherever water is had the land is brought 
under wet cultivation for rice, and the Java- 
nese rice cultivation has not its equal in Asia. 
The hillsides, w^hen beyond the reach of the 
water courses, are nowadays largely given 
over to tea, quinine, and forest growths. 
Along the coasts great groves of palm trees 
furnish the copra, so valuable in the making 
of oils, soaps, etc. Peanuts, sweet potatoes, 
a large variety of leguminous plants and 
tropical fruits make for the Javanese a more 
varied diet than most tropical islanders find. 
The seas are full of fish, and the air is full of 


birds. Everywhere life is fecund. Under the 
paternal sway of Holland the thronging peo- 
ples of Java, while not specially moving with 
rapidity toward the large things of our day, 
are, nevertheless, better fed and clothed and 
more contented than any equal number of 
people under any European government in 

Borneo comprises two hundred and seventy- 
five thousand square miles — about five and a 
half times the size of New York State; it is 
very sparsely populated and much of it is 
practically a terra incognito. Perhaps the 
greatest political romance in this whole region 
is the kingdom of Sarawak, in North Borneo. 
Here an Englishman, named Sir James 
Brooke, finding himself at the court of a 
native sultan, helped his host to achieve vic- 
tory over a contending tribe. The sultan of 
Brunei besought Sir James to remain with 
him, and gave him the headship of a vast tract 
of country. It was but a step from this to 
independent control of this vast section, and 
then, largely by good government and moral 
prestige, this territory was extended, by the 
invitation of neighboring tribes, until to-day 
the successor of Sir James Brooke is Rajah 
Brooke, of Sarawak, a kingdom with some two 
millions of people scattered over a vast terri- 


tory, which will ultimately be the home of 
forty or fifty millions of prosperous people, 
living under firm but benign rule. 

The missionary conquest of this interesting 
archipelago is being undertaken by several 
societies with headquarters in Holland and 
(Germany, while the missions of the Church 
of England are Avell distributed through the 
Malay Peninsula. The Scotch Presbyterians 
have a small mission in Singapore. The Ply- 
mouth Brethren have eight or ten missionaries 
in British Malaysia. The Americans are 
represented only by the missions of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church; and for this reason, 
and because of the further fact that the writer 
himself was the pioneer of this American mis- 
sion, he devotes large space to a distinctive 
description of the planting and spread of the 
Methodist mission in Malaysia. 

But first a few words regarding the lan- 
guages of the country, and a brief survey of 
the other missionary bodies that are at work. 

It will be readily seen that the language 
difficulties of this archipelago must be great. 
Besides the languages of the late comers, 
among the older peoples of this region is a 
great variety of dialects; but the base of all 
the languages spoken by the ^lalay peoples 
is Malay; and with whatever variations, the 


Malay itself, as spoken ou the coast of Su- 
matra and of the Malay Peninsula, comes near 
to being the lingua franca of the entire terri- 
tory. And, to tell the truth, the Malay is an 
exceedingly attractive language. There is in 
it a capacity for conveying ideas, particularly 
ideas of all phenomena connected with the 
life of the sea, the changing aspects of nature 
and the life of the jungle, and all land and sea 
si)orts, which makes it both apt and pictur- 
esque. It seems easy to begin using, but much 
more difficult to use effectively and correctly 
than the beginner at first realizes. This lan- 
guage has suffered much from the foreigners 
who try to use it; for, when the Chinaman 
has softened its trilling r s to labial ZX and the 
Tamil has changed its ^ s and p^s to explosive 
h'Sy and the Englishman has flattened its 
broad vowels, it is difficult for the Malay him- 
self to recognize his own language. And yet, 
in many parts, the strangers are so much in 
evidence in commercial and public life that 
the only place to hear good Malay is in the 
homes of the retiring Malays, who are very 
difficult of access. 

There has grown up among the Chinese resi- 
dents of the Malay Peninsula and of Java and 
Sumatra, among the families that have been 
resident there several generations, a language 


Avhich is a patois of Malay, and so distinctive 
tliat it is called Haba Malay; and, strangely 
enough, these Chinese who have forgotten 
their own tongue and are confined to this 
patois look upon the pure Malay as the lan- 
guage of less civilized people, and, therefore, 
will not endure any correction of their own 
errant speech. The Methodist mission is just 
publishing a New Testament in this Baba 
Malay, for it finds that the pure Malay is but 
poorly understood by this influential class of 
the community. 

Malaysia Missions 

From the first occupation of these lands by 
the Portuguese, and later by the Dutch and 
English, Christian missionary operations have 
been steadily maintained. To the town of 
Malacca, on the Malay Peninsula, came Fran- 
cis Xavier, that apostolic soul w^ho carried 
Christianit}' along the coasts of Asia from 
India to Japan. Here are still found the ruins 
of a Christian church called by Xavier's 
name; and in this church is a tablet to his 
memory. A considerable Roman Catholic 
congregation remains to this day, though it 
is without influence or much token of Chris- 
tian life. In the Dutch East Indies the Dutch 
missionaries have had large success. At one 


time there were more Christians in these 
islands than in all British India. But, alas! 
a rationalistic wave spread over Holland dur- 
ing the middle of the last century, and the 
result has been a decaying missionary zeal 
and a very large curtailment of missionary 
results. I gratefully record the fact that a 
new breath of life begins to blow over the 
Dutch churches. Minnehassa, in the north 
half of the Celebes Islands, was at one time 
know^n as the ^^Garden of the Lord," but it can 
scarcely any longer be thus characterized. 

In later years some of the German missions 
have begun work with more than ordinary 
success. Particularly in the island of Nias, 
off the south of Sumatra, and on the adjacent 
coast, large outcomes have been secured. 

The first attempt made by any American 
mission was that of the American Board, 
which sent two young missionaries, Lyman 
and Munson, to evangelize the wild Battaks 
of Sumatra. Both these young men were 
killed by the Battaks, and it is said their 
bodies were eaten in a great cannibal feast. 
When the sad story was related to the mother 
of one of them, in her little New England 
home, she is said to have turned to the next 
boy of the family with these words : "O, my 
son, somebody should go to try and teach these 


poor, mis^ided people." There were no fur- 
ther attempts made to continue this mission, 
but the Episcopalians and Presbyterians of 
England have projected some missions, and 
the Plymouth Brethren have some represen- 
tatives who are, for the most part, confined to 
British Malaysia. 

Since that time the Rhenish mission from 
Germany has approached the Battaks from 
the Island Nias; and one of the great triumphs 
of modern missions is recorded in their splen- 
did success. Once wild savages, a hundred 
thousand of these former cannibals are now 
an orderly people, living with a considerable 
degree of cultivation and making such prog- 
ress that they must be counted among the 
progressive people of our modern day. 

The most widespread of these missions is 
that of The Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, of the Anglican Church. These mis- 
sions are under Bishops Davies and Mound, 
who are styled, the former as the "Bishop of 
Singapore" and the latter the "Bishop of 
Labuan and Sarawak." Bishop Mound lives 
in Kucheng, the capital of Sarawak, at the 
court of Rajah Brooke, and superintends suc- 
cessful missions in the various lands where 
his missionaries are at work. 

In 1884, Bishop John F. Hurst, while on his 


way to India to administer the Conferences 
there, was met by a Scotch merchant of Singa- 
pore, who asked why, with a network of mis- 
sions in India and corresponding work in 
China, the Americans had utterly neglected 
the great and promising field that lay out- 
stretched between the two? Bishop Hurst 
was greatly impressed by the conversation, 
and on reaching Bombay he eagerly inquired 
of Dr. Thoburn, the foremost missionary in 
India, whether it would be possible to project 
a mission to the Malay Islands. Dr. Thoburn 
had wished to do this for many years. India 
Methodism had already leaped across the 
north end of the Bay of Bengal and was 
planted in Burma; and now Singapore stood 
invitingly at the southern extremity of the 
same bay. It was decided between them that 
such a mission should be opened, but as it was 
without the authorization of the General Mis- 
sionary Committee there were no funds avail- 
able for the enterprise. This, however, seemed 
a minor matter to men in a land where 
William Taylor had already carried the cry of 
self-supporting missions, and where station 
after station had been opened without any 
regular missionary grants. 

Once it was decided that there should be a 
mission in Singapore, earnest quest was made 


for the man to organize it. The entire list of 
the South India Conference was scanned, but 
there was no man that could be spared. 
Finally Dr. Thoburn suggested that there was 
a man at sea, on his way from New York, that 
he expected to take up work in India, whence 
he had gone to America to prepare for a mis- 
sionary career. It was thought he might be 
spared, and, accordingly, the Conference 
appointment read, "Singapore, William F. 

Dr. Thoburn, afterward bishop, was some- 
what anxious about the opening of the mission 
without any resources excepting those to be 
found on the field. He. therefore accompanied 
the young missionary, and with him went Mrs. 
Thoburn and Miss Julia Batty, a young mis- 
sionary lady who was something of a musi- 
cian. On reaching Singapore the whole party 
was hospitably entertained by Mr. Phillips, 
the warm-hearted and godly superintendent 
of the Sailors' Home. 

Through the influence of Mr. John Polglase 
the use of the town hall was secured for evan- 
gelistic services, and, on a Sunday in Feb- 
ruary, 1885, the first service was held with 
an audience of about one hundred and fifty 
persons of varying nationalities, who were all 
held together by the common tie of the Eng- 



lisli language. Dr. Thoburn announced the 
text, the text of the first sermon preached in 
the Malaysia mission of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. It was, "Not by might, nor by 
power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of 
hosts." And as the earnest speaker made the 
statement that it would not be by the power 
of human eloquence, nor by the might of any 
mere human agency, but by the movement of 
God's Spirit upon men's hearts, that many of 
those present would be convicted of their sins 
and many be converted to God, the deep 
silence and the fixed attention of the hearers 
indicated that the speaker's words were not 
going amiss. Evening after evening the seiw- 
ices continued. The preaching was pungent 
and practical. After a few evenings the 
speaker called for seekers of religion and im- 
mediately the strange sight was seen of a 
Methodist mourners' bench, filled with men 
and women seeking the Lord for the pardon 
of their sins, the cleansing of their lives, and 
for power to do God's will. Among these were 
English, Eurasians, Tamils, and one Chinese 
— happy augury of success to be achieved later 
in this polyglot land. 

Out of this company of reclaimed and con- 
verted men and women, a church was organ- 
ized, and W. F. Oldham was appointed pastor. 


It was but a little company, but their hearts 
were full of warmth and zeal, and they looked 
the future courageously in the fa<!e and went 
on to proclaim the message that was theirs 
to give to the people. After ten days Dr. 
Thoburn and his party returned, but Mission- 
ary Oldham and his wife remained, and 
through the English-speaking people the 
church which had been gathered from among 
them began to do what it could to carry the 
gospel to the non-Christian population of that 
island. Happily, the pastor did not consider 
himself merely a pastor to a small congrega- 
tion, but, rather, a herald to the people. Hence, 
he made it his business in every possible way 
to acquaint himself with his surroundings. 
He studied the Malay language and the ways 
of the Chinese and Tamils and how to ap- 
proach them, and very soon preaching was 
carried on in many tongues on the streets and 
in the homes of the people. 

Bishop Hurst writes at this time to the 
Western Christian Advocate: 

"If from all the lands where our people are 
now singing their Centennial psalms our 
church were suddenly blotted out, there is 
aggressive force enough in India Methodism 
alone to sail to all the continents and islands 
and plant it over again. I have no regrets 


at the appointment of Dr. Thoburn as Con- 
ference evangelist. It means an evangelist for 
all India. He is just now in Singapore, away 
down on the equator, and within sight of 
China. Dr. Thoburn and the new pastor for 
Singapore, the Eev. W. F. Oldham, went down 
together to organize our church there. All 
honor to Allegheny College for sending out 
the first man for the Malay millions and to 
complete the connection between India and 
China! Think of the joy which the heroic 
Bishop Wiley would have had had he been a 
witness to the arrival of these men there. But 
who knows how much he did see? The map 
of his sublime faith was very broad." 

Educational work was begun among the 
sons of well-to-do Chinese who, from the first, 
rallied to the support of these young mission- 
aries and made it possible for them to conduct 
a high-grade school without any cost to the 

The following is from Bishop Thoburn's 
India and Malaysia : 

"The ordinary European in those parts is 
accustomed to treat the Chinese with a certain 
hauteur, which prevents anything like inti- 
mate or confidential intercourse; and hence, 
while the missionary was always treated 
politely, he felt that he was held at a distance, 


and had no close access to the people. At 
length, however, God opened his way in a most 
unexpected manner. Walking down a street 
in the Chinese quarter, his attention was one 
day drawn to a sign above a doorway, ^Celes- 
tial Reasoning Association.' On inquiry, he 
learu(Hl from a Christian Chinaman that a 
debating society was held in that place, where 
the young Chinese of the city w^ere accustomed 
to meet and debate questions for the improve- 
ment of their English. The missionary at 
once proposed to become a member of the club, 
but was politely informed that none but 
Chinese were admitted to it. He then offered 
to deliver a lecture before the club, if he might 
be allowed that privilege, and his offer was 
immediately accepted. He chose for his sub- 
ject ^Astronomy,' and provided himself with a 
blackboard and colored crayons, by w^hich he 
succeeded in making his lecture intelligible to 
his hearers. The lecture was delivered, not 
in the clubroom, but in the residence of one 
of the leading Chinese residents, and all the 
leaders of Chinese society were present. A 
sumptuous repast was served up at the close, 
and the lecturer was treated with the most 
distinguished consideration. At a single 
stroke he had won not only the respect, but 
also the confidence of the men whose influence 


he most valued. The Consul-General of China 
presided and in an address at the close of the 
lecture complimented the missionary in the 
most cordial manner, while all present made 
him feel that they appreciated the favor which 
he had conferred upon them. I cannot do bet- 
ter than quote from Mr. Oldham : 

" ^That evening was laid the foundation of 
our mission work among the Chinese. A day 
or two afterward the host at whose house the 
party had been entertained wrote and asked 
me if I would be willing to serve him as a 
private tutor. I was a self-supporting mis- 
sionary, with a slim handful of members. I 
had been trying hard to get among the Chinese. 
Here was a Chinese gentleman offering me 
good wages and the opportunity of personal 
intercourse. It seemed providential, and I 
promptly accepted the offer, and became the 
private tutor of the wealthy and influential 
gentleman, Mr. Tan Keong Saik. Some weeks 
after, at a great public dinner, when the Gov- 
ernor and the leading officials were present, 
Mr. Keong Saik made one of the speeches of 
the evening. It was exceedingly happy and 
very effective, and great credit was gained 
among the Chinese for their orator's tutor, 
and he immediately began to be in demand. 
I preferred, however, the teaching of the chil- 


(Ireu to the tutoring of their fathers, and there- 
fore proposed to the Chinese merchants that 
they should open a school, to which not they, 
but their children, should come. They ac- 
cepted the offer, and a house was selected in 
the heart of the city, and a teacher for tlie 
Chinese language secured. I myself taught in 
the English, and the school w^ithin a week 
numbered thirty-six boys. It continued to 
increase until one day it was proposed by one 
of the Chinese that I build a house more cen- 
trally located, on a piece of ground which had 
already been given by the government. The 
enterprise was at once taken in hand, and the 
cost of the building was paid by the Chinese, 
one gentleman heading? the subscription with 
five hundred dollars. ?5oon nfter this it was 
thought advisable to open a boarding school 
in connection with the day school. This, too, 
increased so rapidly that it became necessary 
to buy a new property, and the proposal was 
made that the Chinese should contribute one 
half of the amount if the missionary society 
in America would contribute the other half. 
The conduct of this enterprise was intrusted 
to an influential Chinese banker, Mr. Tan Jiak 
Kim, and the missionary had simply nothing 
to do except state the amount necessary to be 
collected. To my amazement and very great 


pleasure, in the course of six weeks Mr. Jiak 
Kim reported that the amount of six thousand 
two hundred dollars — four hundred more than 
had been asked for — had been collected among 
the Chinese, Mr. Jiak Kim himself heading 
the subscription with a splendid donation of 
fifteen hundred dollars. I cite these facts to 
show the new ideas of the cultivated Chinese, 
and their exceeding liberality where they have 
confidence in the missionaries.' 

^^0 the above testimony I ought to add that 
when our missionary, during the first year of 
his residence in Singapore, undertook the erec- 
tion of a church for our English congregation, 
among the subscribers was one of the Chinese 
gentlemen, who actually gave five hundred 
dollars, which was the largest contribution 
given by any one for this enterprise." 

The work soon outgrew the first couple and 
other missionaries were summoned, and from 
this first school others were born, until now 
from Penang in the north to Batavia and 
Surabaya, a score of schools have sprung up 
in which about eight thousand boys and girls 
are being educated under Christian tutelage. 
Of them, the Anglo-Chinese School in Singa- 
pore with an enrollment of fourteen hundred 
students remains in the leadership. It has 
been very happily described by Dr. Percy 


Stickney Grant in The Outlook as "that school 
in the corner of Asia." 

This vast extension of school agencies would 
have been impossible, were it not for the splen- 
did cooperation of the Chinese, who are great 
enthusiasts for education, and are willing to 
substantially help those who demonstrate 
their capacity and willingness to open the way 
for the training of the Chinese youth. 

The Tamils, from Ceylon, also are eager for 
education, and many of their leaders are found 
ready to cooperate. 

The Malay has been the backward member 
of the community; but even he has, of late, 
shown increasing desire to get ready for the 
new day that is at hand. 

What the whole situation calls for is the 
creation of a school of college grade, to pre- 
pare a local educational leadership for the 
many millions that are found on the surround- 
ing islands. If you will place the center of 
a circle at Singapore, then with a diameter of 
twelve hundred miles sweep the surrounding 
lands with its circumference, you will hold 
within the circle a population of over forty 
millions of people. In all that area there is no 
school of college grade; and yet this section 
of the world is waiting. Here are found vast 
mineral deposits, large quantities of rice and 


rubber, pepper and tobacco, rattan, gambler, 
tea, spices, and all manner of valuable tropical 
products; and here is an enterprising mer- 
chant community that grows in vision of the 
possibilities of the future. What a splendid 
opportunity for the putting down of a college 
that shall grip the situation and prepare the 
leadership for these waking forty millions! 
All this territory is in vital contact with 
Singapore. This is the center of that wide 
parish, and this is the strategic location for 
a Christian college. 

The Anglo-Chinese School, at Singapore, 
strengthened by suitable endowment, for 
which it waits, will affect the life of south- 
eastern Asia as profoundly as the Roberts Col- 
lege at Constantinople, or the great Presby- 
terian College at Beirut, affects southeastern 
Europe. A recent arrangement made b}^ the 
mission with the Chinese of Java and Sumatra 
is vc^ry significant. One half million Chinese, 
chiefly merchants, are scattered through these 
islands. The revolutionary movement in 
China was felt by these, perhaps, before it 
assumed any proportions in China itself. 
Under the Dutch flag and in contact with 
European life and modes of thought, these 
Baba Chinese were early persuaded that the 
Chinese methods of education were antiquated 


and ineffective, and they originated "The 
Chinese Reform Association'^ and began to 
open their own schools, in which they sought 
to teach the Chinese and English languages. 
An alliance has been made betw^een the mis- 
sion and this Association, whereby missionary 
teachers are supplied to the schools of the 
Association, which continue to be directed and 
financed by Chinese committees. A mission- 
ary, moreover, has been appointed examiner of 
schools by the Association. He is the general 
adviser of the various committees, and is seek- 
ing to standardize the schools. It will be seen 
at a glance what possibilities are held open 
for Christian progress in such a situation. 
The teachers are finding very ready entrance 
to the Malay communities, among whom the 
Chinese live, and the very fact of their asso- 
ciation with Chinese merchants gives them 
readier access and greater prestige. 

Alongside of these boys' schools there has 
grown up a network of small girls' schools. 
There is not as yet any great demand for 
female education, but that there should be as 
much as there is must be marked to the credit 
of the aspiring Chinese and Tamils of Malay- 
sia. The girls' schools are necessarily not 
self-supporting. When the desire for the edu- 
cation of women grows as keen as it is for 


men there will be time enou.i»li to expect the 
schools to pay their own way. Meanwhile it 
has only been by most earnest and intelligent 
effort that a chain of schools has been created, 
in which about one thousand girls are being 
educated each year. While much emphasis is 
laid upon the educational work of the mission, 
there has been a very steady progress of direct 
evangelism. The difficulties in the way of all 
evangelistic enterprises, however, are very 
marked. The land literally bristles with them. 
They are chiefly : 

First. The difficulty of the language. The 
little handful of missionaries are already 
preaching in these islands in no less than four- 
teen different dialects. There are eight dia- 
lects of Chinese, and the people of any one 
rarely understand any other, for the China- 
man, unlike the Indian, seems to have diffi- 
culty in getting other tongues than his own. 
Then there are the Malay, the Baba Malay 
(the distinct variant previously referred to), 
the Tamil, the Javanese, the Sundanese, the 
Sibu, and the Dyak. 

Second. There is the migratory character 
of the population. The Chinese come and go ; 
the Tamils come and go. And, sometimes, 
after a year's earnest and successful work a 
native pastor will come to Conference and 


report but small addition to the membership. 
Said an earnest joung preacher, at one of the 
recent sessions of the Malaysia Conference: 
"I have worked earnestly; I have prayed 
much ; I have preached every day in the streets, 
and several times on Sunday in the homes; I 
have prayed with men and wept over sinners ; 
and God, in great mercy, has given me during 
the year fifteen souls, of ^Ahom ten were bap- 
tized, and five went away before they were 
baptized, taking letters with them to the mis- 
sionary in China. But, alas! no one of the 
fifteen is left on my station. May God keep 
them wherever they are I I must go to work 
again this year to find more converts." 

This experience is not a singular one. At 
least thirty per cent of the congregations 
move every year. But if the constant move- 
ment of population carries away the Chris- 
tians almost as soon as they enter the church, 
on the other hand they are often carried into 
communities where they act as leaven and 
develop a zeal and effectiveness, such as might 
not be theirs, did they not feel that the whole 
care of the Christian religion was in their 
hands. Dr. Luering tells an interesting story 
of being met forty miles from Foochow, in 
South China, by a man who showed extra- 
ordinary pleasure and hailed him with demon- 


strations of respect and affection. The mis- 
sionary was puzzled, and asked who the man 
might be. "Pastor, do you not know me?" 
said the man. "You baptized me in Singapore 
six years ago. I have been home for over five 
years, and my whole family has learned the 
doctrine. They are all Christians now; but 
they are not baptized. Will you not come and 
baptize them?" It was found later that prac- 
tically the entire village, of nearly one hun- 
dred people, had become Christians through 
the earnest life and conversation of this re- 
turned wanderer. His knowledge was scant, 
but his life had been true. 

On another occasion I received a letter from 
a Chinaman in West Borneo begging me to 
send a missionary to baptize several hundred 
Chinese cocoanut growers, who had become 
Christians under the writer's fervent preach- 
ing. The letter was so urgent that the mission 
determined to extend its borders, and sent a 
missionary to investigate the West Borneo 
situation. He returned, reporting with enthu- 
siasm that some four hundred agriculturists, 
who had settled in West Borneo, had become 
fairly intelligent professors of Christianity 
under the leadership of an itinerant Chinese 
doctor, whom the missionary himself had bap- 
tized many years before. The man had dis- 


appeared from mission statistics but with the 
results I have stated. 

When the mission sought extension on the 
island of Java, and two experienced mission- 
aries were deputed to travel through the island 
and report upon the most suitable location for 
the opening of mission work, they reported, on 
their return, that their progress through the 
chief cities of Java was made exceedingly 
pleasant and profitable by the welcome ex- 
tended to them by groups of influential young 
men, former students of the mission schools 
in British Malaysia, who learned from each 
other of the coming of representatives of those 
in whose schools they had been trained. It 
may be, therefore, that the loss of member- 
ship by the constant moving of the people may 
be more than offset by the carrying of the 
gospel into dark places by these mobile 
streams of emigration. 

Of the Christians themselves Avho remain, I 
think it may be said that their home life and 
general course and conduct of life in general 
is perhaps the most forceful apologetic for 
Christianity in the communities where they 
live. I recall with vivid pleasure scores of 
Christian families which, in the beauty of 
their home life and by the purity and tender- 
ness of their domestic relations and their 


probity in business matters, commend the 
gospel to their neighbors more effectively 
than by much preaching. 

The evangelistic efforts of the mission among 
the Tamils from southern India and Ceylon 
have been fruitful. These people come from 
a land where Christian missions have been 
long operative. Perhaps there is no part of 
India which is so thoroughly evangelized as 
the south. When they reach Malaysia they 
are strangers in a strange land, and the In- 
dian, with his intense devotion to his native 
country, feels the loneliness of exile. By him, 
under such conditions, the Christian preacher, 
speaking his own tongue and approaching him 
with kindness and sympathy, is received Avith 
immediate cordiality. India has sent to us 
several of her educated sons, deeply earnest 
men, who have been available as missionaries 
to their own people. Some of them have been 
men of power, and around them have gathered 
considerable numbers of Tamils and Cey- 
lonese, who are largely supporting their own 
churches and ministering to the newer comers 
in helpful ways. 

It was soon found, however, that residence 
in Malaysia begins to produce distinct local 
types, differing both from the Indian and 
Chinese. The children of the second genera- 


tion born in the land are best understood by 
those who have grown up with them, and a 
theological school for the training of indige- 
nous ministers early became a necessity. The 
beginning of such a school was provided bv 
the generosity of a Pittsburgh layman, Samuel 
Hamilton; and from this modest institution, 
which greatly needs enlargement and better 
equipment, there has come a small stream of 
efficient pastors who are the real strength of 
the permanent work of the church. When this 
school is equipped for more effective work in 
its normal and theological departments a 
brighter day will come for the mission at 

Among the romantic experiments in Ma- 
laysia, is that of two colonies from South 
rhina, which has been engineered and cared 
for by the missionaries. South China is very 
thickly populated. Periodical famines occur, 
and this, added to the pressure of population, 
makes emigration to Malaysia exceedingly in- 
viting. At the same time there are vast areas 
in these fertile islands awaiting the skill and 
the thrift of the hard-working Chinese. The 
mission, therefore, has undertaken to direct 
the immigration of Christian families from 
South China into a section of the Malay Pen- 
insula, and to lead a still greater movement 


into the hospitable territory of Sarawak in 
North Borneo, under the benign rule of Rajah 
Brooke. Both these colonies are prospering 
greatly. Perhaps, owing to more generous 
treatment, the Sarawak colony is growing to 
larger proportions under the direction of Mis- 
sionary James M. Hoover. About three thou- 
sand people from the Foochow Province are 
now happy and successful farmers on the 
banks of the broad-bosomed Rejang River, in 
the interior of Sarawak. Recently an agri- 
cultural and industrial station has been 
opened by a trained missionary, who has 
already imported all manner of American 
agricultural implements, including motor 
plows, on the ground that, missionary though 
he be, he cannot promise to keep his religion 
at all if he be obliged to have the plowing done 
by slow-moving water buffaloes, which can 
work only five hours a day, moving at the rate 
of one and a half miles an hour. 

The influence of this mission upon the leth- 
argic Malays and head-hunting Dyaks that 
surround it is already beginning to be felt; 
and the practical example of the bettering of 
life by the spiritual teachings, the moral con- 
duct, and the stirring activities fostered by 
Christianity, is recognized to be of great value 
in that wild semi-savage land. Young mis 


sionaries directing that enterprise are found- 
ing a new civilization, and are working out 
the redemption of great continental areas 
without, perhaps, themselves being conscious 
of the contribution they are making to the 
current progress of the world. 

Two other matters remain to be discussed. 
Twenty-five years ago, in the fifth year of the 
mission's existence, a small hand press was 
sent to Singapore. A young captain of the 
Royal Engineers of England, who had come in 
contact with the missionaries in Singapore, 
was so powerfully persuaded that he, too, 
should be a missionary that, against the 
advice of his friends, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army, entered a printing house in 
London, and learned the whole work of the 
modern printing office. He was already a 
Malay scholar. While learning the printing 
trade he joined Hugh Price Hughes's mission 
in London and studied, under that prince of 
teachers, the finer art of reaching men. On 
his return to Singapore he began to create a 
publishing house ; but there was need not only 
for the mechanical appliances, but also for 
the subject matter to be printed; and here 
ex-Captain Shellabear's fine Malay scholar- 
ship and literary ability became available. 
During the quarter of a century he has 


retranslated into idiomatic Malay the entire 
Scriptures; has written several valuable 
books, including a dictionary and grammar of 
the Malay language. He is now translating 
the New Testament into Baba Malay. He also 
has written some of the most exquisite hymns 
that have ever been produced in any language. 
His Malay rendering of "Jesus, Lover of my 
Soul'' deserves to stand alongside of Mr. Glad- 
stone's Latin rendition. Meanwhile the little 
hand press has become an extensive printing 
establishment, employing sixty men, using 
linotypes and all manner of the most modern 

It has already been shown that Singapore 
is a location unexcelled for the distribution 
of goods. It can be seen, therefore, how power- 
ful the influence of a great Christian printing 
plant, pouring out into the polyglot languages 
of Malaysia a stream of Christian literature, 
borne by thousands of ships, in the sum total, 
to all the surrounding lands. This press is 
now housed in a handsome three-story build- 
ing, Avhich forms one of the ornaments of 
Singapore, and has been created from the 
ground up with but scant help from any but 
local resources. Take it all in all, it is per- 
haps the most successful printing enterprise 
of the Methodist Church in foreign lands. 


It remains for me, finally, to tell the most 
romantic story of all — that of the coming of 
Methodist women missionaries to these popu- 
lous islands. The way of it was this : 

Soon after the coming of the pioneer mis- 
sionaries to Singapore they clearly saw that 
to more deeply affect the life of the community 
the homes must be entered and women and 
girls be put under instruction. Any mission 
in the Orient that touches only men cannot 
hope to make either rapid or permanent ad- 
vance. "The hand that rocks the cradle rules 
the world." This is just as true of the Asiatic 
world as of any other. The most earnest pleas, 
therefore, were written to the women in 
America asking for women missionaries. The 
secretaries of the Woman's Foreign Mission- 
ary Society, gathered in council at executive 
meeting, considered the matter, and as, alas I 
so often has been the case, concluded that 
though the appeal was cogent, "there were no 
funds to begin a new mission.^' One woman 
dissented and, when it became clear that she 
stood alone, Mary Ninde of Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, arose, and solemnly said, "The women 
of frozen Minnesota will plant a mission at 
the equator, if it becomes necessary to wear 
calico dresses that they may do so." She re- 
turned to her branch and stated her case, and 


the women of Minnesota responded splendidly 
to their leader's enthusiasm. A cablegram 
reached the missionary in Singapore announc- 
ing the fact. Meanwhile an Australian lady 
had come to India seeking missionary service. 
By a strange series of providences, Mary 
Ninde learned of this lady's worth and 
capacity, and Sophia Blackmore, of Australia, 
was appointed by the women of Minnesota to 
join the mission in Malaysia. Thus did North 
and South meet in this open gateway to the 
heart of the tropics. 

Sophia Blackmore has continued for a 
quarter of a century the devoted and efficient 
leader of a band of women missionaries, who 
have founded schools, carried the gospel from 
house to house, ministered to the needy, re- 
claimed the fallen, and have brought a new 
inspiration and hope to large numbers of the 
womanhood of these fair lands. Malaysia will 
ever thank Minnesota, and bear in grateful 
memory the name of Mary Ninde. 

In conclusion. The American contribution 
to the evangelism of Malaysia has been largely 
in the direction of quickening existing educa- 
tional agencies and creating a wide extension 
of facilities for the preparations for life that 
can come only through Christian education. 
They have been the pioneers in the education 


of women and in lifting the standards of edu- 
cation for all this mission field. But its work 
in this direction must be crowned with insti- 
tutions for higher learning for both men and 
women, where the leadership for from forty to 
sixty millions of the surrounding lands shall 
be adequately prepared. In this preparation 
all the knowledge of our day and that deepest 
knowledge of the heart that comes from ac- 
quaintance with Jesus Christ, the great Edu- 
cator and Emancipator of men, must be con- 
joined. Intelligence and character must both 
be bred by the institutions that purpose to 
serve these many millions with that highest 
service that is rendered by preparing the lead- 
ers for the new day which is assuredly at 

To these great, fertile, tropical islands in- 
creasing millions from China and India will 
be attracted. The sixty millions of to-day will 
be one hundred millions to-morrow, and two 
hundred millions, possibly, within a single 
century. The only help that America is ren- 
dering this already great and potentially 
greater and more thriving section is being 
rendered by this young mission in the various 
ways I have outlined. The investment hitherto 
has been small. The development of indig- 
enous resources is unparalleled. The results 


secured speak for themselves. The best out- 
comes for the future, however, call for a more 
generous measure of attention than the mis- 
sion has yet received. The opportunity is here 
to our hand to take a large part in the molding 
and fashioning of an Island Empire which, 
in time, will rival India and China in the opu- 
lence and splendor of its civilization. The 
infant Malaysia lies in its beautiful cradle. 
Shall the hand that rocks that cradle be Chris- 




"A MAGNIFICENT rosary of glowing islands 
that nature has hung above the heaving bosom 
of the warm Pacific. The combination of 
mountain and plain, lake and stream, every- 
where rich with glossy leafage, clustered 
growths of bamboo and palm ; fields of yellow 
cane, groves of bananas, great reaches of grow- 
ing rice — results from an abundant rainfall, 
a rich soil, an even climate, and the warm 
influence of equatorial waters — tend to make 
a picture richer by far than nature ever 
painted in the temperate zone." 

In these words a poetic traveler describes 
the Philippine Islands, not inaptly, for they 
are indeed a most beautiful tropical archi- 
pelago. Add to this that these islands hold 
a peculiar place in the thought of the Ameri- 
can people, because of our political relations 
with them, and that these relations are now 
being reconsidered in ways that compel our 
attention, and it will be seen that grave issues 
present themselves to the American people 
connected with the Philippine Islands. 

Eight years of constant contact with the 


island of Luzon at least gives me some right 
to speak on this difficult and delicate ques- 
tion. I reserve this, however, for treatment 
later on; meanwhile, I return to the physical 
geography of the Philippine Islands as a 

Extending from Formosa to Borneo, 
through sixteen degrees of latitude and nine 
degrees of longitude, the Philippines consists 
of a gToup of over two thousand islands. 
Many of these are but little specks in the 
ocean; but the largest of these are the islands 
of Luzon, Mindanao, and Mindoro, which con- 
stitute among them very nearly two thirds of 
the entire land area — something more than 
four and a half times as great as the State 
of New York, with a population of nine mil- 
lions. These islands are but sparsely in- 
habited; for even Luzon has but three and a 
half millions, while Mindanao and Mindoro 
have less than one quarter of that number. 
The physical appearance of the islands is ex- 
tremely diversified. Lying, as they do, well 
within the tropics, they present here all the 
appearances of rich tropical vegetation, and 
afford a varying landscape of brilliant com- 
binations of color. The climate is not nearly 
so disagreeable nor threatening as the early 
American residents represented it. We are, 


in the main, an untraveled people outside our 
national boundaries, and the unfamiliar often 
presents itself to us as the undesirable. Those 
who have lived long in the Philippines have 
found them to be neither deadly nor altogether 
unpleasant, and many Americans are now to 
be found domiciled there who are not certain 
that they desire to return to the homeland 
permanently. In describing the climate the 
Filipino sometimes playfully says, "There are 
six months of rain and six months of bad 
weather." The rains which prevail from 
August to December are always heavy and 
frequently torrential, but, since there is but 
little irrigation and the people are dependent 
upon the direct rainfall for their rice crops, 
the rains are very welcome. During the early 
part of the rainy season there are occasional 
storms called "bagnios," which are accom- 
panied by very high winds and frequently 
prove destructive. x4fter the rains, however, 
through the months of December, January, 
and February, these islands are a perfect ver- 
nal paradise. The exquisite beauty of many 
a fair landscape during these three months 
would be hard to equal in any land. March 
begins to be warm and, during April, May, 
and June there are frequent spells of very hot 
weather. But to any man from the plains of 


India, or from the coasts of southern China, 
the Philippines is by comparison a sanitarium 
during the hot weather. 

The people of these islands are chiefly 
Malays, who at different periods reached here 
from various sections of the Malay world, 
bringing with them their tribal variations in 
language and manners and customs. The 
strong tribal instincts of the Malay race have 
helped to segregate these various immigrations 
in different parts of the country, and have 
given rise to a variety of dialects and some- 
thing of a sharp differentiation of characteris- 
tics among the people of different parts of the 

The chief of these tribes are the Tagalogs, 
the Visayans, and the Ilocanos. The Tagalog 
is perhaps the most mentally acute and politi- 
cally clamant member of this family, while 
the Visayan would seem to be at least his 
equal, if not his superior, in real mental 
weight; and the Ilocano is decidedly his 
superior in diligence and thrift, and in a cer- 
tain tribal ability to extend his borders by 
pressing his way among other tribes. A con- 
siderable proportion of the young men who 
are coming to the front in the schools are 
Visayan and Ilocano; and it will be remem- 
bered that Aguinaldo, the best-known Filipino 


military leader, is an Ilocano, as is Monsignor 
Aglipay, the head of a vast seceding movement 
from the Roman Church. 

Besides the Filipinos proper, there are some- 
thing over a million of non-Christians. These 
are known as the Moros, and are found in the 
Sulu Archipelago and parts of Mindanao. 
They are fiercely Mohammedan, while the 
Igorrotes, Ifugaos, and several other smaller 
pagan tribes form the remainder of the non- 
Christian population. The Negritos, found in 
several small groups, are the least developed 
of all these earlier tribes. 

Our first accurate knowledge of the Philip- 
pines begins with the story of Magellan, Avho, 
in 1519, sailing from Spain, reached Rio 
Janeiro, and from thence, sailing southward 
through the straits that bear his name, came 
in March, 1615, to the Ladrone Islands; 
thence, still sailing westward, reached the 
Philippines, which were so named in honor of 
Philip of Spain by a later comer. 

From this time the Spaniards occupied 
various parts of the archipelago, led by such 
daring and resourceful men as Legaspi and 
others. The double incentive to the Spanish 
invaders of the Philippines was to secure the 
tropical riches of the islands and the conver- 
sion of its peoples to the Christian faith. 


Andreas Urdaneta, a priest, who accompanied 
Legaspi, was quite as striking a figure and as 
powerful an influence in the subjugation of 
these people as the military commander. 

The early influence of the Spanish was un- 
doubtedly for good. They rapidly reduced the 
semisavage and warring tribes to order, and 
introduced, to some extent at least, the pur- 
suits and arts of civilization. Under their reli- 
gious guidance and orderliness, enforced by 
the military arm, the people have advanced far 
beyond any other section of the Malay world 
in intelligence and the peaceful organization 
of society. With all deductions, the difference 
between the semisavage Moros and the other 
untamed tribes and the Christian Filipinos is 
the measure of the benefit conferred upon the 
Philippines by the Spanish presence. Par- 
ticularly is this true in what Spanish civili- 
zation did for the Filipino woman. It found 
her, as among other Malays, a burden-bearer 
or a toy. It leaves her the most emancipated 
woman in Asia, for the Filipina realizes that 
she is a person. Modest in demeanor, though 
vivacious in spirit, she takes her place along- 
side of the men in the family and in social 
life, and is very largely in all the retail busi- 
ness of the islands. The keepers of the tiendas, 
or little stalls, where foodstuffs, fruits, cloths, 


etc., are sold, are pretty generally women; 
and it is admitted that the women of the 
islands are more reliable and punctual in 
meeting their bills than are the men. What- 
ever farther distance the Filipino has to go, 
he owes a great debt of gratitude to the 
Spaniard for the distance to which he came 
by the time this century opened. 

By a strange providence the American peo- 
ple were unexpectedly thrown into contact 
with the Philippines fifteen years ago. Moved 
beyond the power to bear further with the in- 
humanities of the Spanish government in 
Cuba, under the stern and heavy-handed Wey- 
ler, the American government, in 1897, served 
notice that the cruelties being exercised 
against the Cubans must cease. The remon- 
strance was received as an impertinence. This 
was followed by the unhappy incident of the 
blowing up of the battleship Maine in Havana 
harbor. Soon afterward war was declared be- 
tween Spain and the United States, and while 
during the course of this war the whole coun- 
try was eagerly watching the campaign in the 
West Indies we were suddenly startled to hear 
that Admiral Dewey had entered Manila har- 
bor and had practically subdued the Spanish 
in the Philippines on the other side of the 


The question of the disposal of the Philip- 
pines became acute at the close of the war. 
Mr. McKinle}^, then President, was very much 
averse to breaking the tradition which had 
kept the nation out of meddling with the rest 
of the world from any but unavoidable rea- 
sons. He was, therefore, minded to find some 
way out of the difficulty without keeping 
possession of the islands; but the force of 
circumstances and the fact that no other 
alternative presented itself, caused the com- 
missioners at Paris to assign the suzerainty 
of the archipelago to the United States, with 
the understanding that we retain the Philip- 
pines not as a possession but as a trust. 

A brief sketch of the faithfulness with 
which this trust has been administered may 
not be out of place, particularly as, at this 
time, the whole matter of the Philippines is 
a burning public question. In brief, it may be 
said that the fifteen short years that have 
elapsed since Admiral Dewey entered Manila 
harbor, sinking the Spanish fleet without the 
loss of a single one of his own men, hold a 
record of progress unexampled in the contact 
of any Western people with any part of Asia. 
Blunders there have been, some of them need- 
less, most of them unavoidable from inexperi- 
ence; occasional betrayal of trust by minor 


officials, and more often arbitrary dealings by 
such have also been; some lack of care to re- 
spect the feelings of the people and to treat 
with the courtesy which is their due the lead- 
ers of the people may be charged against the 
often brusque American. But, on the whole, 
the record is one of which we may be proud. 
Particularly is this true that the planning of 
the general methods of administration by the 
early commissioners and Governor Taft, and 
the carrying out of these plans by their succes- 
sors have given the people larger opportunities 
for development and have uniformly led to 
finer outcomes than could well have been 

The establishment of a school system which 
covers the whole area; the creation of courts, 
in which justice is more nearly administered 
— and certainly with less delay — than in many 
of our courts at home; the building of hun- 
dreds of miles of wagon roads and railroads; 
the spanning of the streams with permanent 
bridges, and, above all, the introduction of 
large numbers of Filipinos, as fast as they 
could be got ready, into the government offices, 
in which they have been trained to faithfully 
administer the trust committed to them, have 
all been parts of a steady movement to a 
larger forwardness than has ever been seen 


under similar conditions since history began 
to be written. 

Regarding the public school system inaugu- 
rated by the Americans, it will be recalled 
that the first company of American teachers 
sent to the islands, on the transport Thomas, 
numbered five hundred and forty-three — 
picked men and women — the noblest cargo 
ever transported from a Western land by 
political agencies to an Eastern land held in 
temporary subjugation. This number was 
soon rapidly increased to a thousand, and was 
kept at this level for several years. These 
teachers were used after a year or two for 
supervisional purposes, while increasingly the 
work of elementary teaching has been put into 
rapidly trained Filipino hands. Upon the 
primary school system created by these teach- 
ers there was developed in each province an 
intermediate school, and in each of the prov- 
inces a high school and a trade school for in- 
dustrial training in carpentry, blacksmithing, 
hat-weaving, etc. The strength of the school 
system consists in the fact that, as soon as 
possible, the American teachers were utilized 
to give direction to their Filipino colaborers, 
reserving to themselves only the teaching of 
the higher studies in English and the sciences. 
By an early decision of the Educational De- 


partinent, P^nglish was made the vehicle of 
instruction; for it was soon found that the 
man}^ dialects of the Philippines contained 
but inconsiderable literature; and as the 
adoption of any of these would involve the 
labor of teaching most of the children what 
would be practically a new language that held 
small literary values, English was selected as 
being the best for cultural purposes, as well as 
the easiest medium for transacting commer- 
cial affairs both with America and all other 
lands. For, even as compared with Spanish, 
of which but a handful of the people knew 
more than a few phrases of salutation, Eng- 
lish promises much readier access to their 
neighbors. Over six hundred thousand chil- 
dren are now enrolled in the public coeduca- 
tional schools. In order to fit the training to 
the needs of the community, part of the time 
is spent in industrial training after the fourth 
grade is reached. This is very helpful to a 
people who had for three hundred years and 
more been in contact with the Spanish idea 
that labor is menial. If the present school 
system is doing nothing else but conveying to 
the rising generation the idea that manual 
labor is entirely respectable and worthy any 
citizen's attention, it is greatly serving them. 
During the past five years the foundations 


of a State University have been laid, and 
already, in the departments of liberal arts, 
mechanical arts, normal training, law, engi- 
neering and medicine, about three thousand 
Btudents are enrolled; and the most auspi- 
cious beginning of a higher education, con- 
veyed in the English tongue, has been made. 
The record is without parallel in the annals 
of the East. 

Great emphasis also has been (put upon 
means for the economic development of the 
country. With a larger area than Japan, a 
fertile soil, and bountiful rainfall, it is still 
true that the Filipino imports several million 
pesos' worth of rice each year, not because 
the land cannot produce enough to support 
ten times the present population, but from 
ignorance of agricultural methods and lack of 
diligence and thrift. Very great attention 
has, therefore, been paid by the American 
administration to the endeavor to improve ag- 
ricultural methods and to build better roads 
and to extend the railroad system. Spain left 
behind her, in the entire archipelago, one hun- 
dred and thirty miles of railroad, with anti- 
quated rolling stock and a time schedule of 
about twelve miles an hour. Several hundred 
miles of railroads have been built, or are 
under construction, and still more hundreds 


of miles of metal wagon roads, which replace 
the quagmires or dustpits of Spanish times. 
All bear witness to the intelligence and zeal 
with which the people are being served. The 
sanitation of the islands has been diligently 
cared for b}^ the active cooperation of the chil- 
dren in the schools, who show a fine zeal in 
this matter. 

Among the things that have contributed 
much to the improvement of health is the in- 
troduction of artesian wells. The Filipino 
had been accustomed to get water where he 
could; and it was not an uncommon thing to 
see large puddles, in which carrabaos wad- 
dled and women washed the family clothes, 
also supply the drinking water for the whole 
village. It has been very difficult to per- 
suade the people that, at least, such water 
should be boiled and filtered. It has, there- 
fore, been a great benefaction to tens of 
thousands of people to have artesian wells 
introduced. Starting with tw^o wells in 1905, 
their number grew to one hundred and forty- 
four in 1909; two hundred and twenty-eight 
in 1910, and five hundred and thirty-eight in 
1911 ; and close to a thousand in 1912. Where 
artesian well water is abundant, the death 
rate has fallen off noticeabl}' — in some cases 
as much as fifty per cent. 


I remember seeing an enthusiastic Filipino, 
when first an artesian well shot up a stream 
of deliciously cold water four inches thick 
several feet above the ground, first testing the 
water in a long drink, then standing up and 
saying: "Ah, these Americans! They bring 
fire out of the sky, and water out of the bowels 
of the earth. They have done more for us in 
ten years than Spain would have done in a 

The people have been warned against habits 
that promote disease, and great advance has 
been made in the stamping out of such wasting 
plagues as cholera and smallpox. In all these 
directions the Filipino has moved wonderfully 
in the brief decade and a half since Dewey 
entered Manila Bay. In addition to this, the 
trade returns of this country show marked 
defvelopment. The figures of 1911 indicate 
an export and import trade nearly three times 
as large as the highest figures under Spain. 
The recent admission of the Philippines to 
free trade with the United States — except for 
a limitation upon the amount of tobacco and 
sugar — has greatly quickened the exchange of 
commodities with this land. Under this 
arrangement the Philippines is finding a gen- 
erous market and, with the growing intelli- 
gence of the people and their increasing am- 


bition to possess themselves of the material 
goods of a finer civilization, as well as its 
ennobling spiritual ideals, greater effort is 
being put forth to develop native resources. 
That the American presence has greatly stimu- 
lated all the avenues of trade goes without 
question. In all these matters the Filipino 
has responded admirably to the suggestions 
conveyed by the American. If the teacher has 
been intelligent and, on the whole, free from 
self-seeking or mercenary motive, the pupil, 
on the other hand, has been wonderfully 
responsive and more ready to follow advice 
than could reasonably have been anticipated. 
It is true that many Americans declare that 
the Filipino is lazy, too conceited to learn, and 
not sufficiently ambitious to bestir himself ; 
that many Filipinos may be heard to say that 
the mere material comforts and practical 
advices brought to them by the American in- 
vasion are not the greatest things in life; and 
that the soul of the Filipino people is a more 
cultivated soul than its poorly fed and housed 
body would seem to indicate. But, in point 
of fact, judging the whole matter in any large 
way, the American has already made a large 
contribution in cheery ways to Filipino 
advancement; and the Filipino has received 
the help, if not altogether with gratitude, 


nevertheless, with the practical appreciation 
of making use of it to advance himself in 
many notable ways. But one thing has dis- 
turbed the whole program, and that has been 
the ceaseless clamor of the Spanish-speaking 
politicians in Filipino society "for indepen- 
dence.'' If by independence these persons 
meant the independence of the whole people, 
there might be something admirable in the 
cry, for, of course, it would arouse admiration 
to see a whole people put aside hope of larger 
earthly good, or even of higher intelligence 
and more progressive ways of life, in order 
to secure the entire direction of their own 
affairs. But there is little evidence as yet in 
the actual life of the people that the leaders 
of this cry "for independence" understand 
even the elements of popular liberty. 

That, in so short a time, it has been possible 
to put Filipinos so largely into official posi- 
tions, not only of the inferior kind but of the 
more influential where both fidelity and initi- 
ative are called for, speaks well for both 
Americans and Filipinos. The full weight of 
this will be felt when it is kno\\Ti that the 
mayors of all the municipalities of the Chris- 
tian portion of the islands, many of the treas- 
urers of the provinces, all the governors and 
the tliird member of the Provincial Council 


are Filipinos; that the justices of the peace, 
a considerable proportion of justices of the 
Supreme Court, the attorney general, and sev- 
eral others of high position and influence are 
Filipinos; but, above all, when it is added that 
the Philippine Assembly — which answers to 
our national House of Representatives — con- 
sists entirely of Filipinos, and that even the 
Commission, which answers to our Senate, has 
a majority of Filipino members. From all 
this it might be argued that it is but a small 
step to entire autonomy, in which Filipinos, 
exclusively, would entirely direct all the 
affairs and man all the departments of Fili- 
pino public life. This, however, would be a 
conclusion unwarranted by a wider survey of 
the facts. The Americans, though few in num- 
ber, have yet the determining voice in the 
larger affairs of Filipino administration. The 
heads of the educational and the various eco- 
nomic departments are still Americans, and 
the governor-general, with the War Depart- 
ment at Washington behind him, is the final 
arbiter in all the graver questions that arise. 
Why this should continue to be the case in 
gl*adually lessening measure, over a period 
of not less than two or three more decades, I 
will endeavor briefly to indicate. 

The whole background of the Malay tribes, 


from whom the Filipino ideas are derived, is 
not democratic bnt oligarchic. The Malay, 
everywhere, before passing under the tutelage 
of other peoples, is divided into tribes, which 
again are subdivided into smaller clans, the 
tribes under a chieftain, and the subdivided 
clans under penghuhis, or "headmen." And, 
while these pengJitilus, among the pagan and 
Moslem Malays, consult in some measure the 
opinions of the older men of the clan, the 
determining word is always spoken by the 
pengJiulu and, in the larger movements, by 
the tribal chieftain, who, in his turn, is more 
or less advised b^^ the penghvlus; but his 
authority is paramount. Malay peoples, 
therefore, wherever found, are utterly un- 
familiar with the idea of any considerable 
number of persons participating in the direc- 
tion of those matters that pertain to the com- 
mon welfare. Loyalty to the chief, more or 
less unquestioning subservience to the will of 
the penghuhi, is the common law of life. The 
centuries of contact Avith Spain have not 
seriously modified this point of view, for the 
Spanish order of society, though not tribal, 
was aristocratic, and the resemblance in prac- 
tical life is very close. The military, civil, and 
ecclesiastical authorities of Spain took the 
place of chiefs and penghulus; and the idea of 


consultiujjj any considerable section of the 
plain people regarding even matters that were 
closest to their welfare and comfort never 
entered the heads of the Spanish administra- 
tors. It is true that the weight of the unjust 
demands of these Spanisli authorities rested 
so heavily upon the Filipino that it awoke in 
him first a dull resentment and later a flaming 
hatred, which showed itself in violent and sus- 
tained efforts to free himself from Spanish 
domination. The cry of "Independence" be- 
gan to be raised first as a murmured threat, 
and it gradually swelled to a determined 
national chorus; but that this cry had behind 
it anything like an intelligent idea of the par- 
ticipation of the mass of the people in their 
own government scarcely entered the minds 
of any. It was centuries since the Filipino 
had felt the disabilities of the tribal life, and 
the burden laid upon him by his own pefighu- 
Jus and caciques. His one thought was deliv- 
erance from the oppression of the foreigner. 
Whatever he might receive at the hands of his 
own leaders could not be so gTievous to bear as 
the Spanish and Roman yoke. It would, any- 
how, be a change of masters, and the oppressed 
man always hopes that change will bring him 
some bettering of conditions. 

With the entry of the Americans, the cry 


of "Independence'- was still kept up by the 
old leaders, who belonged, to a man, to what 
is known as the illusti^ado class; that is, they 
were men of the families that had rather more 
intelligence and social prestige. Here again 
it is necessary to discriminate betAveen illns- 
trados in general and the best endowed of 
this class — the real property holders and rep- 
resentatives of what might be called the best 
Filipino families. Many of these, made con- 
servative possibly by their possessions and 
social position, were not altogether unfriendly 
even to Spain. The women of their house- 
holds had, for the most part, been trained in 
Spanish convents, and many of the men Avere 
more or less intimate with the Spanish leaders 
in church and state. These were not the 
"intellectuals,'^ but they were what one might 
call the solid men of the country. This sec- 
tion of the illustrados has never taken any 
part in active politics. The other and larger 
section of the illustrados^ howeA^er, soon after 
the American entry, created the Nationalist 
party and, with the large liberty that the 
American administration permitted, they 
have, from the beginning until now, so per- 
sistently, ably, and yet, at bottom, unreason- 
ably and unintelligently cried "Independ- 
ence" that thev have carried Avith them the 


masses of the uneducated and unthinking; 
people, who, with the inheritance I have at- 
tempted to describe, are peculiarly susceptible 
to au}^ cry raised by their racial leaxiers. 

It is important, however, that the American 
people should not be misled into thinking that 
this cry for independence carries with it any 
promise of what we are accustomed to mean 
by a Democratic government. The Filipino 
does not lack capacity, as has been proven by 
the readiness with which so large proportion 
of public offices are already administered by 
him. The difficulty is not there. The w^hole 
body of the people has not had time to learn 
the rights of the individual. If our intention, 
after these fifteen splendid years of trustee- 
ship, is to hand over to the exploitation of 
their racial leaders the masses of the plain 
people of the Philippines, then there is no 
reason to withhold the early granting of entire 
autonomy. If, however, by the kindly play of 
that Providence that has made us guardians 
of the eight millions of naturally capable 
people, our perception of our real task should 
lead us to conclude that we are to train this 
little nation on the confines of Asia into a 
more worthy conception of the rights of the 
people in the determination of their common 
w^eal, we should first see to it that sufficient 


opportunity is granted to the masses of the 
Philippines to secure such general education 
and such particular knowledge of a right 
political and social order, as will enable them, 
when they come to self-government, to do so 
intelligently and with security for the com- 
mon rights of all. 

But, it may be asked, have we not through 
several years been teaching these high ideas 
of the rights of the commonalty and the 
methods by which they may be lawfully 
secured? It is admitted that the Filipino is 
intelligent. Has he not learned in fifteen 
years enough to find him on his course, par- 
ticularly if to these fifteen years be added four 
or eight years of tentative entirety of freedom 
from compulsory direction? Here, I fear, 
speak the generosity and altruism of the 
American mind rather than its sagacity. 
Peoples take longer to train than individuals, 
and when a people is less than five per cent 
literate, as the Filipino people was at the time 
of the American entry, the task is indefinitely 
extended. The public school system during 
the past twelve years cannot have touched 
more than three millions at the utmost of all 
the people, and of these the great mass are 
still children. The oldest of the public school 
products can scarcely be twenty-five years old, 


and has certainly not come into the direction 
of the public thinking, nor into the ranks of 
public leadership. Practically all the so-called 
leaders of the Filipino people to-day are 
Spanish-bred, and have been but lightly 
touched by the American influence conveyed 
through the English tongue, which has been, 
to the very large majority of them, a foreign 
language looked upon with a certain measure 
of jealousy. For these men — lawyers, news- 
paper writers, etc. — have instinctively recog- 
nized that the introduction of English as the 
national language threatened their leadership. 
They were either too old or too busy to learn 
this new language; and they have uncomfort- 
ably felt that if leadership was to pass into 
the hands of the English-speaking, they would 
be counted out. This single fact has weighed 
heavily in their instinctive alienation from the 
new program of a wider base for popular gov- 
ernment. The prospect to them has been 
many voices and not few, English voices and 
not Spanish, with the necessary inference that 
their possibilities of leadership would pass 
away. How much this has had to do with 
the vehemence of their agitation, only those 
who know the Filipino situation closely can 
testify. It is on behalf of the masses of the 
plain people, who have not yet come to intelli- 


licence and a clear understanding of what a 
republic means, that the real friends of the 
Philippines urge a less hasty program than 
that which is now promised. To leave the 
Philippines to become the prey of designing 
leaders, the theater of such exhibitions as that 
which Mexico is now affording, is surely not 
the altruistic program to which we w^ere so 
manifestly called when Dewey entered Manila 
Bay. I have nothing but deep respect for the 
present national leaders of America Avho pro- 
pose the program of immediate independence ; 
but if time be given for a closer investigation 
of all the facts, I am very certain that I have 
spoken the deeper truth of matters that are 
not on the surface. And an investigation of 
these will give Congress pause. Let us wait 
till tw^o more generations have been through 
the public schools, till the mass of the farmers 
and plain people of the smaller villages have 
learned the real meaning of a republic and the 
popular intelligence and appreciation of true 
liberty upon which republics are founded. Let 
us wait until the jefe and the cacique are dis- 
agreeable memories and not immanent facts 
before we attempt to take our guiding hand 
from the direction of the people who, in a 
strange way, have been given us to lead to 
something like fullness of life. The American 


presence means, for the next twenty or thirty 
years, the widening of the economic base, 
until the islands produce enough food to feed 
their own people; the promotion of public 
intelligence, until the great mass of the people 
— men and Avomen — shall be able to read and 
write; until the humble people in remote ham- 
lets, as well as the poorest laborers and arti- 
sans in the larger cities, shall have come to 
know their individual rights, and have ac- 
quired courage and independence of spirit 
enough to assert and protect them. 

Another outstanding weakness in the Fili- 
pino thinking, that only longer contact and 
deeper education in American thought and 
ideals can hope to correct, is the dislike for 
manual labor and the disesteem of what, in 
an inclusive way, might be termed the labor- 
ing classes. The older idea of the Spanish 
aristocracy, nowhere so flourishing as in a 
remote colony, helped to confirm in the some- 
what lethargic Malay peoples of the Philip- 
pines the idea that all manual labor is servile. 
Filipino ladies may be seen walking to church 
with servants carrying their prayer books, 
and children going to school with attendants 
carrying their satchels. The purchase of a 
little parcel at a store means the necessary 
presence of a muchacho, or servant, to carry 


the parcel home. It has been supposed to be 
the mark of respectability that no member of 
the family should ever be caught in any occu- 
pation that called for muscular exercise. 
These ideas have filtered down from the top 
and hold sway too far down toward the bot- 
tom for the economic health of the nation. 
The presence of the American, Avith his readi- 
ness to engage in any form of labor that pays, 
and particularly the constant teaching in the 
schools of the dignity of labor, is creating a 
new attitude on the whole subject; but a pro- 
found change of this kind cannot be consum- 
mated in one generation. 

And yet how much of the future happiness 
and prosperity of any people is bound up in 
the right conception of this matter, I need not 
say. Again, I repeat, the welfare of the mass 
of the Filipinos calls for a longer direction 
of Philippine affairs by the Americans, not 
to exploit the land, not to domineer over the 
people, not for any direct or indirect good 
accruing to the United States, but on behalf 
of the mass of the plain people. Every intelli- 
gent friend of the Filipino must deprecate any 
sudden change of program until most valuable 
lessons pertaining to the very heart of life are 
better learned. 


Missionary kSituation 

I come now to tlir missionary situation in 
the Philippines. 

The planting of the American flag in the 
archipelago, with the announcement that we 
were to be the national trustees of this Asiatic 
people, was the signal for immediate inquiry 
among the various Mission Boards of America 
to learn Avhat the churches could do to help 
the state in this trusteeship. The Presby- 
terian mission was the first to reach the field. 
It was followed soon after by the Methodist, 
Baptist, Protestant Episcopal, the United 
Brethren, Congregational, and the Disciples 
of Christ. 

It was early felt that a fine opportunity was 
presented to test the value of cooperative mis- 
sionary endeavor, and, instead of repeating 
the mistake of the older mission fields, where 
several denominations are sometimes found 
in too close proximity to each other — thus 
breeding rivalries which are not seemly — it 
was determined to divide the archipelago into 
zones and to distribute the field among the 
various missionary bodies. ^Fanila, the cap- 
ital, situated on the island of Luzon, is open 
to all the missions. Outside of Manila the 
missioning of the islands was divided among 


the Presbyterians in the south and the Meth- 
odists and tlie United Brethren and the Dis- 
ciples of Christ in the north; while in the 
southern islands the Presbyterians, Baptists, 
and Congregationalists are found. The Epis- 
copalians, under the leadership of Bishop 
Brent, are operating among the pagan Igor- 
rotes and among the American residents 
throughout the islands. The agreement 
among all these Missions is that for worship- 
ing bodies of Americans in Manila, religious 
work may be undertaken by any of the de- 
nominations, but that in the provinces each 
Board will operate only within the area 
assigned. This agreement is renewed at inter- 
vals by the evangelical union, which- consists 
of representatives from all the various bodies. 
The plan has worked without a hitch from the 
beginning, and it would be difficult to per- 
suade the missionaries of the Philippines into 
any other course of procedure. They have 
practically demonstrated, through more than 
a decade of actual experiment, that the things 
that separate the various Christian bodies are 
really not worth carrying eight thousand 
miles to sea, and that the really valuable 
deposit in the faith of each is the common 
possession of the faiths of all. So close to- 
gether has this cooperation brought the vari- 


ous bodies that the theological seminary in 
Manila has for the past five years trained 
Methodists, Presbyterians, and United Breth- 
ren ministers all in the same classrooms, and, 
part of the time, in the same dormitories. 
Calvinistic and Arminian do not seem to be 
irreconcilable in their diversities of opinion 
when facing a great common task and held 
together in the bonds of a brotherly vSympathy 
under the pressure of this common task. It 
may be that the solvent of our denominational 
difficulties is a more serious attempt to meet 
the necessities of our day in comradeship of 
a more strenuous endeavor rather than by 
force of argument or by whittling away the 
content of our theological differences. The 
creation of a real Christian brotherhood by 
inclusion in common tasks and hospitality in 
differing beliefs so splendidly illustrated in 
the Philippines may hold large values for 
folks nearer home. 

When the first evangelical missionaries 
reached the Philippines, the people, in their 
hot rebellion against Spain and the Spanish 
clergy, were exceeding!}- eager to hear what 
other program of life than that in which they 
had been trained in the Roman Catholic 
Church was offered by the newly come Ameri- 
cans. Intense eagerness prevailed everywhere 


to hear the gospel from evaugelical lips, partly 
because the matter was new and had hitherto 
been forbidden. The Spanish clergy had been 
intolerant to a degree now almost unthink- 
able. The civil power was used to prevent 
the entrance of any teaching, whether by the 
printed page or from the lips of living men, 
which differed from the Roman church. 
When, therefore, with the stars and stripes 
came liberty of conscience and freedom of 
utterance, the eagerness of the people to learn 
was almost pathetic. Missionaries still tell 
of how, as soon as ever they were able to com- 
mand the languages at all, they were kept 
preaching by the hour to attentive audiences, 
that never would tire of hearing. Says Bishop 
Stuntz of these early days : "It was impossible 
to satisfy the eager curiosity of the vast mul- 
titudes that gathered about us everywhere. It 
was like pouring water into a sandpile. At 
the end of hours of preaching the cry was still 
for more." I remember an occasion when at 
the fishing village of Guagua I dedicated the 
little church, which had cost less than one 
hundred dollars, besides the labor of the 
people. The service began at eight o'clock; 
the dedication was completed a little before 
ten ; then several children were baptized, eight 
or ten couples were married, and twenty to 


thirty peoi)l(' were received into membership. 
By this time added companie.s from the sur- 
rounding hamlets had reached us. The little 
church was unable to seat the enlarged con- 
gregation ; but by the simple device of untying 
the bamboo walls from the fixed posts to which 
they were attached, and then propping them 
up on bamboos, all four sides of the church 
looked out into space, and the original con- 
gregation of about two hundred and fifty was 
at ten o'clock a crowd of nearly one thousand, 
squatted for the most part on its heels, Fili- 
pino fashion; and the cry arose for more 
preaching. Nobody but the Bishop would 
suit; and so, perforce, and yet gladly, the 
service was renewed, and when finally it 
closed, after midnight, there were still added 
hearers, and all of them, from those nearest 
the pulpit to those that faded out of sight into 
the darkness of night, remained attentive, 
eager, wide-awake, and by no means inclined 
to have the service stop. 

This was true pretty well throughout the 
islands, except where some more than ordi- 
nary or well-liked priest warned the people 
against the dangerous innovation. And so it 
was with the printed page. Everything that 
was available was at once bought and read. 
The only difficulty was the variety of dialects 


and to produce suitable material in all 
these babbling tongues. Large numbers of 
Gospel portions were rapidly produced and 
more rapidly distributed. Every page of a 
tract or booklet, and many thousands of more 
ambitious books, were paid for by humble 
people, whose resources are exceedingly scant. 
Considering the small percentage of literacy 
among them, the number of pages of evangeli- 
cal literature circulated among those that 
were reached was something phenomenal. The 
results of all this have been more marked than 
in any nominally Roman Catholic land that 
evangelical missions have ever entered. Not 
only has there been the actual ingathering of 
a young evangelical church, under various 
names, to the number, including adherents, 
of over one hundred and fifty thousand, but 
there has been such a leavening of the reli- 
gious thinking of the people as must preclude 
evermore the possibility of any narrow, intol- 
erant creed obtaining wide influence. One 
immediate effect, outside of evangelical Chris- 
tianity, was the secession of from one to two 
million Filipinos, under Monsignor Aglipay, 
who formed themselves into a separate church, 
known as the Independent Church, better 
known by the people as "The Aglipayanos," 
who repudiate the authority of the Pope of 


Rome, express abhorrence of the Spanish 
friars, and put an open Bible in the pulpits 
of all their churches. 

The methods pursued by the various mis- 
sionaries are very largely alike. No attempt 
has been made to create primary and sec- 
ondary mission schools, for this field is 
already splendidly covered by the public 
school system. Educational missions are, 
therefore, not especially in evidence. Large 
place is given, however, to medical missions, 
which are of great value. The Filipino, who 
has been under European tutelage for cen- 
turies, has never had the fear of Western 
medicine which has marked the first entrance 
of medical missions in other Asiatic lands. 
The hospitals, therefore, are all crowded, and 
the dispensaries are thronged with multitudes 
of patients. 

The outcome for such expenditures is really 
remarkable. Some years ago a kindly gentle- 
man, of Minnesota, wishing to keep alive the 
memory of his deceased wife, erected a 
Woman's Hospital in Manila at a cost of ten 
thousand dollars, and enlarged it a little later 
at an added expenditure of four or five thou- 
sand dollars. It would be difficult to tell the 
service rendered by this little hospital, with 
its thirty beds for women, its ward for chil- 


dren, its training school for Filipina nnrses, 
and its swarming dispensary work day after 
day throughout the year. When, a little time 
ago, the hospital took fire, great companies of 
Filipino people gathered around the blazing 
building and poured forth their lamentations 
over the destruction of what had been to them 
a center of bountiful help, and the "Doctora" 
was waited upon for days and weeks after- 
ward with the condolences and small gifts of 
the poor; Avhile the well-to-do sent in enough 
money to rebuild the structure. Similar wide- 
ness of opportunity is to be found at every 
provincial center and, if the various missions 
could multiply the hospitals, they would find 
easier roads of access to the Filipino heart 
and larger influence in Filipino society. 

To discuss more fully woman's missionary 
work in the Philippines, we must recall the 
description of the Filipina woman made 
earlier in this lecture. I repeat she has 
profited by the Spanish influences, and, how- 
ever defective the form of Christianity with 
which she has come in contact, nevertheless, 
it has served to help her discover herself as a 
}3erson; and as such she counts for much in 
the family, in business, and in the social order 
generally. She is thrifty and frugal as com- 
pared with the men, and many a Filipino 

THE rniLlPriNES 285 

home is held tojj;elher by her care and good 
housekeeping. This does not mean that, 
judged by Western standards, there is not 
much left to be desired; nevertheless, she is 
a very hopeful member of the Asiatic family. 
Perhaps as much pains has not been taken to 
educate the girlhood of the Philippines as the 
boyhood, and if anywhere there be a defect 
in the public school system, it has been in the 
lack of insistence by a stronger moral suasion 
upon the school-going of the girls. Those who 
have attended school compare very favorably 
with their brothers, and particularly in the 
normal training school and in the teachers' 
class entered later on, the Filipina has more 
than justified all expectations. 

Mission work is carried on by the evan- 
gelical missionaries among the women of the 
land chiefly in three ways: by hospitals, such 
as I have already described; by training 
schools for deaconesses, or Bible women, and 
by visitation from home to home; the gather- 
ing of children in Sunday schools ; the women 
in mothers' meetings, etc. The young women 
in the training schools make remarkable 
progress and manifest a zeal and sincerity 
that puts many of them easily in the same 
rank as their American sisters. Frequently 
the trained deaconess, after three or four 


years of careful education, has been the 
spiritual strength and trusted central force 
of an entire community. Some of them have, 
single-handed, in the absence of a native pas- 
tor or other leaders, held congregations to- 
gether for six months at a time. I know one 
of them who built a church, raising the money 
by subscriptions from door to door and perse- 
vering against all opposition until her task 
was completed and the church dedicated with- 
out debt. Their zeal is unquenchable, their 
faith so simple and childlike, and their labors 
so abundant as to fill one with admiration and 
high hope for the future of the race to which 
they belong and of the Christian Thurch, 
which they so zealously and eagerly serve. 

The women of America need not hesitate 
to make large investment in the Filipina. She 
will more than repay all the care and love that 
may be extended. The fact also that the Fili- 
pinos have reached a degree of civilization 
which makes it possible for educated young 
women to move freely among the homes of the 
people without excessive attention paid to 
chaperonage, and that single women, when 
they are modest and tactful, are as freely wel- 
comed to the homes as any, makes the use of 
the deaconess in the Philippines a great evan- 
gelistic asset. No such freedom as hers is to 


be found elsewhere in Asia. This, perhaps, 
will in measure account for her deep eager- 
ness in service and the finer results she 

AVhen Mr. Norman Harris, of Chicago, 
erected in Manila the Harris Memorial Bible 
Training School he could scarcely have known 
what a reservoir of gospel influences and of 
help for the cleansing and strengthening of 
the social life of the people he was building. 
Such training schools as this planted by all 
the denominations throughout the islands 
must tell greatly in the final outcomes in 
Filipino life. 

The central institution of Christianity, how- 
ever, is the church and the pastorate. What- 
ever accessory and auxiliary agencies may be 
at work, whether of schools, or hospitals, or 
literature, the quality and character of the 
indigenous pastorate will largely determine 
the future of the native church. Judged by 
this standard, the evangelical church of the 
Philippines is of large promise. From the 
beginning, young men of power and self-sacri- 
ficing spirit have pressed into the ministry of 
the various denominations. These young men 
have received more or less training and have 
then been put to work under the supervision 
formerly of American missionaries, and more 


recently under the direction of older Filipino 
pastors. They have responded to the confi- 
dence put in them and the obligations laid 
upon them to a satisfactory degree. They 
exhibit a readiness to undertake responsibility 
and endure hardships which puts them in the 
first rank of missionary workers. The}^ are 
apt to lack poise in judgment when put into 
difficult situations, but their sincere godliness, 
their gallant disregard of personal comfort 
and financial prospects, their ceaseless ac- 
tivity, and, above all, their deeply fervent 
spirit have made them splendidly effective. I 
speak for the Methodist Episcopal Church 
when I say that we have had large success, 
which in a few years has brought about forty 
thousand people into active membership in the 
church, while twice that number are found 
among the congregations. These results are 
due, not so much to the enthusiasm and energy 
of the American missionary as to the zeal and 
capacity of his Filipino coworker. Many of 
these young men are truly Spirit-filled mes- 
sengers of the gospel. Just before I left the 
Philippines I was in Gapan, and, reaching the 
Methodist church without notice being given, 
I came upon such a scene as would have de- 
lighted the hearts of our revivalist fathers. 
The church Avas filled with people crowded in 


after a fashion that Western peoples could not 
endure. The young preacher, who did not 
know that I stood in the shadows outside the 
church, preached a most earnest and forceful 
sermon on the necessity of earnest repentance 
toward God and faith toward our Lord Jesus 
Christ. He swayed the people as a strong 
wind sways the trees, and when, in a final 
burst of exhortation, he called upon them to 
confess their sins and bow penitently before 
God for pardon, several scores of them forced 
their way to the front and bowed penitently 
at the altar rail. At this point I entered the 
church, but insisted that the young minister 
should go on with the service. He did, and 
such a scene of earnest, intelligent exhorta- 
tion and prayer, Avith the utmost freedom and 
lack of anything like mere formality, but with 
intense earnestness — the Holy Ghost power — 
I have rarely seen. Close upon one hundred 
people, many of them with streaming eyes and 
jubilant voices, declared that God had saved 
their souls. Nor did I find that this young 
pastor had failed to instruct their children, to 
faithfully care for the people from home to 
home, and, in a word, to serve the community 
with all faithfulness and diligence. It is the 
presence of scores of young men of this kind, 
alongside of whom the deaconess with, similar 


faithfulness ministers to the women and girls, 
that is the real hope of the evangelical 
churches of the Philippines. 

There are two things that call aloud for at- 
tention in the present condition of the mis- 
sion. These are, first, adequate attention to 
be paid to the student bodies that are to be 
found in the provincial high schools and the 
state university; and, second, the creation of 
a union Christian college, for the distinctive 
training of Christian leadership in all the 
various movements of that new day which 
has already come. 

Hostels, or dormitories, under suitable mis- 
sionary direction, are needed at all the pro- 
vincial centers. The young men and women 
in these high schools are sufficiently indepen- 
dent to investigate all religious programs that 
are put before them. If the dormitory will 
render them a social service of providing a 
clean but economical place in which to live, 
they are more than w^illing to use it with all 
its accompaniments of Bible classes and evan- 
gelical studies. The liberalizing influence of 
such hostels, together with the moral intoning 
of the whole school by the life that such 
hostels teach and demand, are beyond all com- 

The need for a union Christian college is 


also very great. The state university, under 
the very terms of the case, can do nothing 
toward the moral training of the young man- 
hood and womanhood. A nominally' Roman 
Catholic land, with entire separation between 
church and state, presents circumstances 
which preclude any religious activities within 
the university without incurring the disfavor 
of the authorities. And, whatever help may 
come from Christian dormitories, the mass of 
the students is too large, and the distrac- 
tions and dissipations of the cit}^ are too se- 
ductive, to secure the best morals of the 
student body. The hostels do help. They are 
not, however, sufficient to meet the case. If 
there be any necessity for Christian schools 
in this land, in order that our youth may be 
brought up under religious surroundings and 
with truer conceptions of the relation of re- 
ligion to life, that necessity is at least ten 
times as great in the Philippines. Some 
initial work has already been done in bringing 
the various denominations together in a com- 
prehensive plan for founding a union Chris- 
tian college ; but, alas ! the streng-th of denomi- 
national differences and, it may be, the preju- 
dice begotten of ecclesiastical pretensions, 
seem to arrest the rapid progress of the move- 
ment. It is to be hoped that Christian states- 


manship will prevail over all minor differ- 
ences, and that a Christian college may in the 
near future help evangelical denominations to 
share with the state and our ow^n Catholic 
friends in the development of the leadership 
for this young nation, which must, in some 
near future, undertake the arduous and deli- 
cate task of the direction of its own govern- 

When the strange romance of the contact 
of the American people with the Philippines 
shall end in the sailing forth of the young 
Philippine republic on untried seas, may the 
God of nations (whose program of righteous- 
ness and love all the missionary bodies have 
been trying to impart to the Filipino people) 
have in his tender care and safe keeping this 
young republic, and lead it onward through 
prosperous days to a high and permanent 





CHAPTER I. Pros and Cons op Missions 1 

Criticisms of missions 3 

Three sources of criticism 4, o 

"No need for Christianity" examined t>-14 

Will not the unevangelized heathen be saved? . . . 15-17 

There are heathen enough at home 18-22 

Are foreign missions unfruitful? 23-27 

The impact of the native chm-ches 27-29 

Do missionaries live expensively? 30, 31 

The missionaries spoil the people 31 

Outside witnesses to missions 32-34 

Non-Christian testimony 34, 35 

How missionaries are affecting life 36 

Christianity is essentially missionary 37-39 

CHAPTER n. The Missionary 41 

Why men go as missionaries 43-47 

The pathos of a fatherless non-Christian world. . . 48-51 

Needs not a teacher, but a Redeemer 51-55 

Story of Japanese convert 55-57 

Great value of native preachers 58-60 

Andreas, the Indian fakir 60 

The young Filipino preacher 62 

Changes in ethnic faiths from contact with Chris- 
tianity 64-66 

Narsamiah, the Indian Brahman convert 66, 67 

The results of Christianity in pagan lands 69, 70 

Rise in material civilization 70-72 

The discovery of manhood 71 

The village delegation 73 

Christ breeds insurgency 74-77 

China's changed attitude 77-80 


290 INDEX 


Dr. Sun Yat Sen 80-82 

An official Chinese reception 82-84 

Appeal for investment of life 84, 85 

CHAPTER III. The Message 87 

Change in modern gospel accents 89-91 

How to present the gospel 91-93 

Dr. Warneck on approaches to animistic peoples 94-95 

Weird tale of Lingama 96, 97 

How approach Hinduism 98 

India's response to the Fatherhood of God 100 

India's response to the character of Jesus 101 

India's response to the doctrine of heaven 102 

How approach the Chinese 103 

Chinese belong to three rehgions 104 

"Father" vs. "Shangti" 105 

How approach Mohammedanism 108 

The defects of Mohammed 109 

Need for dignified approach Ill 

The longing for holiness 114 

In the end — the cross 116 

Need for humility in missionary 118-120 

Henry Drummond's advice 121 

'Tis life we need 122-124 

CHAPTER IV. India 125 

The diversity of India 127, 128 

The contempt of caste 129 

Call for courtesy 131 

Deeply rehgious people 132, 133 

The rigidity of caste 134 

India's rehgious consternation 135 

And social perplexity 136-138 

The women of India 139, 140 

"Surely a woman wrote your Bible" 141 

Social deliverance 142 

Religious privilege 143 

Henry Martyn's saying 144 

INDEX 297 


Power of testimony 145 

Difficulties arise 146 

India's spiritual vision 148 

Unifying factors in India — the English language. 150 

Unifying factors in India — and Christianity 151 

Educational missions in India 153 

The Madras Christian College 154 

How the schools affect life 156, 157 

Medical missions 159 

Industrial and evangelistic missions 160 

Illustrations of native preachers' power 161, 162 

Woman missionaries 163, 164 

CHAPTER V. Mass Movements in India 167 

The low castes of India 169, 170 

Their oppression 171 

One-caste movement 172 

How mass movements start 174 

Early baptism 175 

Native simple forms of worship 177, 178 

Rising to higher planes 179, 180 

The higher schools 181 

The village mayors 182 

The promise of the future 184 

Where mass movements prevail 185, 186 

Value of mass movements 187, 188 

The Chaudharis, or village headmen 189-192 

Bishop Warne'a analysis of mass movements .... 190-192 

What it costs to become Christians 193-195 

Why do they become Christians? 195-197 

Dr. Wynkoop's testimony 198, 199 

Effect upon higher castes 203 

The Methodist opportunity 204 

Bishop J. E. Robinson's stirring words 205, 206 

CHAPTER VI. Malaysia 207 

Geographical description 209, 210 

Papuans and Malays 210-212 

298 INDEX 


The Indians and Chinese 213, 214 

Political divisions 216, 217 

Borneo — the Romance of Sarawak 218, 219 

The Malay language 220 

Xavier earliest missionary 221 

Early German and American missions 222 

Beginning of Methodism in Malaysia 223-228 

Bishop Thobm-n's words 229-233 

Need for a college 233, 234 

Eight thousand students in Methodist schools of 

Malaysia 235 

Difficulties of evangelization 236, 237 

Dr. Luering's interesting story 237 

A lay evangeUst in Borneo 238 

The kind of Christians they are 239 

Preaching to Tamils 240 

The Christian colonies of Malaysia 241, 242 

Methodist Chinese colonies in Malaysia 242 

Singapore press 243, 244 

Opening woman's work 245 

Sophia Blackmore 246 

Malaysia's future 248 

CHAPTER VII. The Philippines 249 

The poetry breeding Phihppines 251 

The people 254 

Spain's objects in the Philippines 255 

The Filipina woman 256 

The American entry 257, 258 

Fifteen good years 259 

The school system 260 

Economic development 262 

Artesian wells 263 

Sanitation 264 

Mutual misunderstandings 265, 266 

Independence — why delay 267-271 

For the sake of the peasantry 272-275 

Needs to learn dignity of labor 275, 276 

INDEX 299 


Missions do not overlap 277 

Eagerness to learn 279, 280 

The Aglipay movement 282 

Woman's Hospital in Manila 283 

Missionary methods 285, 286 

The Filipino preacher 288, 289 

Felix Cruz 289, 290 

Wanted, a Christian college 291 

Date Due 

1 tiitatlliilliftliilimwir* 


iiiKi 1 

n MiM 

JUN 1 

11 uftftl 

JUN 1